Tahiti to New Zealand
A fresh Gale at South-East the most part of this day. Keept plying to windward all the afternoon and night, and in the morning found ourselves nearly the length of the South end of Ulietea, and to windward of some Harbours that lay on the West side of this Island. Into one of them I intended to go with the Ship, in order to stop a Leak in the Powder room, which could not be easily done at Sea, and to take in more Ballast, as I found her too light to carry sail upon a wind. At Noon plying off one of the Harbour's mouth, the wind being right out.
Joseph Banks Journal
The wind right off the land of Ulhietea mak[in]g it dificult to get in tho we see a good inlet; after turning to windward till afternoon we however at last get hold of anchorage in the mouth of it. Many canoes came immediately about the ship bringing all sorts of trade so that before night we have purchas'd several piggs and fowls and a large quantity of Plantains and Cocoa nutts.
On attempting to warp the ship in this even the anchor was found to be fast in a rock; at least no attempts could stir it till night when the tide (which runs strong through the inlet) turnd, the ship then going over the anchor tripd it herself.
Posted by Arborfield at 18:47
[William Hodges famous painting (1773), entitled "View of the Islands of Otaha (Taaha) and Bola Bola (Bora Bora) with Part of the Island of Ulietea (Raiatea)"
Tahiti to New Zealand
Fresh Gales in the South-East Quarter, and close, cloudy weather. Plying to windward all this day, on the South-West side of Otaha, without gaining little or anything. In the middle watch was obliged to double reef our Topsails, but in the morning it fell moderate, and we crowded all the sail we could. At Noon the South end of Otaha bore East, distance 2 Leagues. Latitude observed 16 degrees 40 minutes South. Tupia told us there was a very good Harbour within the Reef which lies on this side of Otaha; but this Harbour I shall discribe in another place.
Joseph Banks Journal
Still turning to windward with the wind right in our teeth, towards evening however it mends and gives us hopes that we may tomorrow morn come to an anchor in Ulhietea. Tupia today shewes us a large breach in the reef of Otahah through which the ship migh[t] conveniently pass into a large bay, where he says there is good anchorage. We have now a very good opinion of Tupias pilotage, especialy since we observd him at Huahine send a man to dive down to the heel of the ships rudder; this the man did several times and reported to him the depth of water the ship drew, after which he has never sufferd her to go in less than 5 fathom water without being much alarmd.
Posted by Arborfield at 08:05
Tahiti to New Zealand
Wind in the South-East Quarter. At first a Gentle breeze, but afterwards freshned upon us. P.M. made several Trips before we could weather the South end of Bolabola, which at last we accomplished between 7 and 8 o'Clock, and stood off South-South-West until 12 at night, then Tack'd and stood in until 4 a.m., then stood off again; but meeting with a large swell from the Southward, against which the Ship made little or no way, at 8 we tack'd and stood in Shore again. At this time we discovered an Island which bore from us North 63 degrees West, distant about 8 Leagues: at the same time the Peak of Bolabola bore North 1/2 East, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. This Island Tupia calls Maurua, and according to his account it is but small, and surrounded by a Reef of Rocks, and hath no Harbour fit for Shipping. It is inhabited, and its produce is the same as the other Islands we have touched at. It riseth in a high round hill in the middle of the Island, which may be seen 10 Leagues. At noon the South end of Otaha bore North 80 degrees East, distance 4 Leagues. Latitude observed 16 degrees 39 minutes South.
Joseph Banks Journal
This morn wind right on end. See a new Island calld by Tupia Maurua, he says it is fertile and yeilds plentifully all kinds of provision, but that there is no breach in the reef large enough for the ship to go into.
Little wind and Variable between the South-West and North-West. At 6 a.m., being near the Entrance of the Harbour which lies on the East side of Otaha before mentioned,* (* Hamene Bay.) and finding that it might be examin'd without loosing time, I sent away the Master in the Long boat, with orders to sound the Harbour, and if the wind did not shift in our favour to land upon the Island and to Traffick with the Natives for such refreshments as were to be got. Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander went along with him.
29th. Little wind and Variable. Kept plying on and off this day, waiting for the return of the Long boat. At 1/2 past 5 not seeing anything of her, fir'd a Gun for her to return, and as soon as it was dark hoisted a light. At 1/2 past 8 heard the report of a musquet, which we answered with a Gun; and soon after the Boat came on board with 3 small Hogs, a few Fowls, and a large Quantity of Plantains, and some Yams. They found the Natives very Sociable and ready to part with anything they had, and the Harbour safe and Commodious, with a good Anchorage in 25, 20, and 16 fathoms clear ground.
As soon as the Boat was hoisted in we made Sail to the Northward, and at 8 o'Clock a.m. were close under the Peak of Bolabola, but as we could not weather the Island, we Tack'd and stood off until near Noon, then Tack'd again and stood to the South-West. At Noon the Peak of Bolabola bore South 75 degrees West; we were then distant from the Shore under it 2 or 3 miles, and from the Peak about 5 miles. Latitude observed 16 degrees 29 minutes South.
Joseph Banks Journal
Wind still baffles us as much as ever. This morn hoisted out a boat and sent ashore on the Island of Otahah in which Dr Solander and myself took a passage. We went through a large breach in the reef situate between two Islands calld Toahattu and Whennuaia within which we found very spatious harbours, particularly in one bay which was at least 3 miles deep. The inhabitants as usual so that long before night we had purchasd 3 hoggs, 21 fowls and as many yams and plantains as the boat would hold. Indeed of these last we might have had any quantity and a more useful refreshment they are to us in my opinion even than the pork; they have been for this week past boild and servd instead of bread; every man in the ship is fond of them and with us in the Cabbin they agree much better than the Bread fruit did which sometimes gripd us. But what makes any refreshments of this kind the more acceptable is that our bread is at present so full of vermin that notwistanding all possible care I have sometimes had 20 at a time in my mouth, every one of which tasted as hot as mustard. The Island itself seemd more barren than Ulhietea tho much like it in produce, bread fruit being less plentyfull than Plantains and Cocoa nuts. The people perfectly the same, so much so that I did not observe one new custom or any thing Else among them worth mention; they were not very numerous but flockd from all Quarters to the boat wherever she went bringing with them whatever they had to sell. Here as well as in the rest of the Islands they paid us the same Compliment they are used to pay to their own Kings, uncovering their shoulders and lapping their Garments round their breasts; here particularly they were so scrupulously observant of it that a man was sent with us who calld out to every one we met telling him what we were and what he was to do.
29th The wind last night has favourd us a little so that we are this morn close under the Island of Bola Bola, whose high craggy peak seems on this side at least totaly inaccessible to men; round it is a large quantity of low land which seems very barren. Tupia tells us that between the shore and the mountain is a large salt lagoon, a certain sign of barrenness in this climate; he however tells us that there are upon the Island plenty of Hogs and fowls as well as the vegetables we have generaly met with. We see but few people on the shore, Tupia tells us that they are gone to Ulhietea where we shall find them. He says also that there is no breach in the reef on this side the Island but on the other there is one large enough for the ship to go in and a good harbour within it.
Posted by Arborfield at 12:44
Winds at West by North and West by South, but very Variable towards the Latter part. At 4 p.m. the North End of Ulietea South 75 degrees West, distance 2 leagues, and the south end of Otaha North 77 degrees West. About a League to the Northward of the South end of Otaha, on the East side of the Island, a mile or more from the Shore, lies 2 Small Islands. Between these Islands Tupia says there is a Channell into a very good harbour which lies within the Reef and it had all the appearance of such. Keept plying to Windward all night without getting any ground. At Noon the Peak on Bolabola West by South. Latitude observed 16 degrees 26 minutes South.
27th. Variable light Airs of wind in the South-West Quarter, and fair weather. Seeing that there is a broad Channell between Otaha and Bolabola, I intend to go through that way and not run to the Northward of all; but as the wind is right an end, and very Variable withall, we get little or no ground. Between 5 and 6 o'Clock p.m., as we were standing to the Northward, we discover'd a small low Island lying North by West or North-North-West distant 4 or 5 Leagues from Bolabola. This Island is called Tubai. Tupia says it produces nothing but a few Cocoa Nuts, that there are only 3 families live upon it, but that the people from these Islands resort thither to Catch fish. At Noon the peak of Bolabola bore North 25 degrees West, and the north end of Otaha North 80 degrees West, distant 3 Leagues. Latitude observed 16 degrees 38 minutes South.
Joseph Banks Journal
Foul wind Continues last night, the ship has faln much to leward. Before night however we have gaind our loss and something more, as we discover a low Island ahead which Tupia tells us is calld by the natives Tupi; he says that it is low without a harbour and yields nothing but Cocoa nuts and fish. Turn to leward all night and all day again, so much that at night Tupi is not in sight.
Posted by Arborfield at 15:09
Winds variable from South-South-East to North-East. At 8 a.m. got under sail and plyed to the Northward within the Reef, in order to go out at the Northern Channell, it being the broadest; but being little wind and meeting with Shoals we had not before discovered, we turned down but slowly.
First part, little wind at North-East; in the night calm, A.M. a fresh breeze at West-North-West, fair weather. At 3 p.m. Anchor'd in 22 fathoms Muddy bottom, the North Channell open bearing North-East 1/2 East, at 5 a.m. a breeze sprung up at North-West, weighed and put to Sea, and hauled to the Northward in order to take a View of the Island and Ataha and Bolabola; but before I proceed farther, I shall describe the Harbour we have been in.
This Harbour, taken in its greatest Extent, is capable of holding any number of Shipping in perfect security, as it extends almost the whole length of this side of the Island, and is defended from the Sea by a reef of Coral rocks; the Southermost opening* (* Teava Moa Pass.) in this reef or Channell into the Harbour, which is not more than a Cable's length wide, is off the Eastermost point of the Island, and may be known by a small woody Island, which lies a little to the South-East of it. Between 3 and 4 miles North-West from this Island lies 2 other small Islands, and in the same direction as the reef, of which they are a part. Between these 2 Islands is another Channell* (* Iriru Pass.) into the Harbour that is a full Quarter of a Mile broad; still further to the North-West are some other small Islands, where, I am informed, is another small inlet, but this I did not see; but, as to the other 2, we enter'd the Harbour by the one and came out by the other. The principal refreshments we have got here consists in Plantains, Cocoa nuts, some Yams and a few Hogs and fowls. This side of the Island is neither Populous nor Rich in Produce, if compared to George's Island, or even Huaheine; however, here is no want of refreshments for a ship who may put in here and stay but a short time; and wood and water may be got everywhere, tho' the latter is not very convenient to come at.
Joseph Banks Journal
Foul wind. The Captn attempts to go out of the reef at another passage situate between the two Islets of Opourourou and Taumou. The ship turning to windward within the reef in doing which she narrowly escapes going ashore, the Quartermaster in the chains calld out 2 fathom; the ship drawing at least 14 feet made it impossible that such a shoal could be under her Keel, so either the man was mistaken or she went along the edge of a coral rock many of which are here as steep as a wall. Soon after this we came to an anchor and I went ashore but saw nothing but a small marai ornamented with 2 sticks about 5 feet long, each hung with Jaw bones as thick as possible and one having a skull stuck on its top.
25th. This morn get to sea and turn to windward all day. Find that the two Islands Ulhietea and Otahah are inclosed by one reef: Tupia says that there is a large pasage through[h] it between them and a harbour within it, also another fronting a large bay on the Eastermost end of Otahah.
Posted by Arborfield at 08:12
The wind Variable with Showers of rain. Strong Gales at South and hazey with rain, and which continued the most part of Sunday, in so much that I did not think it safe to break the Ship loose and put to sea as I intended.
Joseph Banks Journal
Weather worse than yesterday, in the course of last night it blew very fresh, this morn rainy. Walk out but meet little worth observation. Saw a double pahie such as that describd yesterday but much larger, she had upon her an awning supported by pillars which held the floor of it 4 feet at least above the deck or upper surface of the boat; also a trough for making Poe poe or sour paste carvd out of hard black stone such as their hatchets are made of, it was 2 ft 7 long and 1 ft 4 broad, very thick and substantial and supported by 4 short feet, the whole neatly finishd and perfectly polishd tho quite without ornaments. Today as well as yesterday every one of us who walkd out saw many Jaw bones fix'd up in houses as well as out of doors, a confirmation of their taking them instead of scalps.
Weather mended a little. Dr Solander and myself go upon the hills in hopes of finding new plants but ill rewarded; return home at night having seen nothing worth mentioning.
Posted by Arborfield at 20:50
Tahiti to New Zealand
Winds variable, and dark, cloudy weather, with frequent Showers of rain. At 1 p.m. I landed in Company with Mr. Banks and the other gentlemen. The first thing done was the performing of Tupia's ceremony in all respects as at Huaheine. I then hoisted an English jack, and took possession of the Island and those adjacent in the name of His Britannick Majesty, calling them by the same names as the natives do. A.M. sent the Master in the Long boat to examine the coast of the South part of the Island, and one of the Mates in the Yawl to sound the Harbour where the Ship lay, while I was employ'd in the Pinnace surveying the Northern part of the Island, and Mr. Monkhouse went ashore to trade with the Natives for such refreshments as were to be got.
Joseph Banks Journal
Dr Solander and myself walkd out this morn and saw many large Boathouses. On these the inhabitants were at work making and repairing the large Canoes calld by them Pahee, at which business they workd with incredible cleverness tho their tools certainly were as bad as possible. I will first give the dimensions and description of one of their boats and then their method of building. Its extreme lenght from stem to stern not reckoning the bending up of both those parts 51 feet; breadth in the clear at the top forward 14 inches, midships 18, aft 15; in the bilge forward 32 inches, midships 35, aft 33; depth midships 3 ft 4; hight from the ground she stood on 3ft 6; her head raisd without the figure 4ft 4 from the ground, the figure 11 inches; her stern 8 ft 9, the figure 2 feet. Alongside of her was lashd another like her in all parts but less in proportion being only 33 feet in her extreme lengh. The form of these Canoes is better to be expressd by a drawing than by any description.
The first stage or keel under aa is made of trees hollowd out like a trough for which purpose they chuse the longest trees they can get, so that 2 or three make the bottom of their largest boats (some of which are much larger than that describd here as I make a rule to describe every thing of this kind from the common size); the next stage is formd of streght plank about 4 feet long and 15 inches broad and 2 inches thick; the next stage is made like the bottom of trunks of trees hollowd into its bilging form; the last or that above cc is formd also out of trunks of trees so that the moulding is of one peice with the plank. This work dificult as it would be to an Europaean with his Iron tools they perform without Iron and with amazing dexterity; they hollow with their stone axes as fast at least as our Carpenters could do and dubb tho slowly with prodigious nicety; I have seen them take off a skin of an angular plank without missing a stroke, the skin itself scarce 1/16 part of an inch in thickness. Boring the holes throug[h] which their sewing is to pass seems to be their greatest dificulty.
Their tools are made of the bones of men, generaly the thin bone of the upper arm; these they grind very sharp and fix to a handle of wood, making the instrument serve the purpose of a gouge by striking it with a mallet made of a hard black wood, and with them would do as much work as with Iron tools was it not that the brittle Edge of the tool is very liable to be broke. When they have prepard their planks etc. the keel is layd on blocks and the whole Canoe put together much in the same manner as we do a ship, the sides being supported by stantions and all the seams wedg'd together before the last sewing is put on, so that they become tolerably tight considering that they are without calking.
With these boats they venture themselves out of sight of land; we saw several of them at Otahite which had come from Ulhietea and Tupia has told us that they go voyages of twenty days, whether true or false I do not affirm. They keep them very carefully under such boathouses as are describd p., one of which we measurd today 60 yards by 11.
Posted by Arborfield at 07:11
Moderate breezes at East and East-North-East. Fair weather. At 1/2 past 2 p.m. weighed and made Sail for the Island of Ulietea, which lies South-West by West, Distance 7 or 8 leagues from Huaheine. At 1/2 past 6 we were within 3 Leagues of it, then shortened sail and stood off and on all night, and at daylight made Sail in shore, and soon after discover'd an opening in the Reef that lies along this side of the Island, within which, Tupia said, was a good Harbour. Upon this I hoisted out the Pinnace, and sent the Master in to Examine it, who soon made the Signal for the Ship to follow. Accordingly we stood in and Anchor'd in 22 fathoms, soft ground. Soon after we Anchor'd some of the Natives came on board the Ship with very little invitation.
Joseph Banks Journal
At noon today come to an anchor at Ulhietea in a bay Calld by the natives Oapoa, the entrance of which is very near a small Islet Calld Owhattera. Some Indians soon came on board expressing signs of fear, they were two Canoes each of which brought a woman, I suppose as a mark of confidence, and a pig as a present. To each of these ladies was given a spike nail and some beads with which they seemd much pleasd. Tupia who has always expressd much fear of the men of Bola Bola says that they have conquerd this Island and will tomorrow come down and fight with us, we therefore lose no time in going ashore as we are to have today to ourselves. On landing Tupia repeated the ceremony of praying as at Huahine after which an English Jack was set up on shore and Captn Cooke took possession of this and the other three Islands in sight viz. Huahine Otahah and Bola Bola for the use of his Britannick majesty. After this we walk together to a great Marai calld Tapodeboatea whatever that may signifie; it is different from those of Otahite being no more than walls about 8 feet high of Coral Stones (some of an immense size) filld up with smaller ones, the whole ornamented with many planks set upon their ends and carvd their whole lengh. In the neighbourhood of this we found the altar or ewhatta upon which lay the last sacrafice, a hog of about 80 pounds weight which had been put up there whole and very nicely roasted. Here were also 4 or 5 Ewharre no Eatua or god houses which were made to be carried on poles. One of these I examind by putting my hand into it: within was a parsel about 5 feet long and one thick wrappd up in matts, these I tore with my fingers till I came to a covering of mat made of platted Cocoa nut fibres which it was impossible to get through so I was obligd to desist, especialy as what I had already done gave much offence to our new freinds. From hence we went to an adjoining long house where among several things such as rolls of cloth etc. was standing a model of a Canoe about 3 feet long upon which were tied 8 under jaw bones of men. Tupia told us that it was the custom of these Islanders to cut off the Jaw bones of those who they had killd in war; these were he said the jaw bones of Ulhietea people but how they came here or why tied thus to a canoe we could not understand, we were therefore contented to conjecture that they were plac'd there as a trophy won back from the men of Bola Bola their mortal enemies. Night now came on apace but Dr Solander and myself walkd along shore a little way and saw an Ewharre no Eatua , the under part of which was lind with a row of Jaw bones which we were also told were those of Ulhietea men. We saw also Cocoa nut trees the stemms of which were hung round with nutts so that no part of them could be seen, these we were told were put there that they might dry a little and be prepard for making poe; we saw also a tree of Ficus prolixa in great perfection, the trunck or rather congeries of roots of which was 42 paces in circumference.
Posted by Arborfield at 20:43
Tahiti to New Zealand
Variable light Airs and clear weather. The Trading party had better success to-day than Yesterday. A.M. a Gentle breeze at South-East. As it was known to the Natives that we intended to sail to-day, Oree, the Chief, and several more, came on board to take their leave of us. To the Chief was given a small plate on which was Stamp'd the following inscription--viz., "His Britannick Majesty's Ship, Endeavour, Lieutenant Cook, Commander, 16th July, 1769, Huaheine." This was accompanied with some Medals, or Counters, of the English Coins, struck 1761, together with some other Presents. All these, but more particularly the Plate, the Chief promised never to part with. This we thought would prove as lasting a Testimony of our having first discover'd this Island as any we could leave behind. After this was done they were dismissed, and we began to prepare to leave the place. But as that falls out on the following day, I shall conclude this with a Discription of the Island, which is situated in the Latitude of 16 degrees 43 minutes South, and Longitude 150 degrees 52 minutes West from Greenwich and North 58 degrees West, distance, 31 leagues, from King George's Island, or Otaheite. It is about 7 Leagues in compass, and of a Hilly and uneven surface. It hath a safe and commodious Harbour, which lies on the West side, under the Northermost high land and within the North end of the Reef which lays along that side of the Island. Into this Harbour are 2 inlets, or openings in the Reef, about 1 1/2 Miles from each other. The Southermost is the Broadest, on the South side of which is a very small sandy Island. This Harbour is called by the Natives Ohwarhe. The produce of this Island is in all respects the same as King George's Island, and the Manner and Customs of the inhabitants much the same, only that they are not addicted to Stealing; and with respect to colour they are rather fairer than the natives of George's Island, and the whole more Uniformly of one Colour.
Joseph Banks Journal
This morn trade rather better: got 3 very large hogs and some piggs by producing hatchets, which had not been before given and we hop'd to have had no occasion for in an Island which had not before been seen by Europaeans. In the afternoon go to Sea. The Island of Huahine differs scarce at all from that of Otahite either in its productions or in the customs of the people. In all our searches here we have not found above 10 or 12 new plants, a few insects indeed and a species of scorpions which we did not see at Otahite. This Island seems however this year at least to be a month forwarder than the other, as the ripeness of the Cocoa nuts now full of kernel and the new breadfruit, some of which is fitt to Eat, fully evinces. Of the Cocoa nut kernels they make a food which they call Poe by scraping them fine and mixing them with yams also scrapd; these are put into a wooden trough and hot stones laid among them, by which means a kind of Oily hasty pudding is made which our people relishd very well especialy fryd. The men here are large made and stout, one we measurd was 6ft 3 high and well made; the women very Fair, more so than at Otahite tho we saw none so hansome. Both Sexes seem'd to be less timid as well as less curious, the firing of a gun frightned them but they did not fall down as our Otahite freinds at first generaly did. On one of their people being taken in the fact of stealing and seizd upon by the hair they did not run away, but coming round inquird into the cause and seemingly at least approving of the Justice recomended a beating for the offender which was immediately put in practise. When they first came on board the ship they seemd struck with a sight so new and wonderd at every thing that was shewn to them, but did not seem to search and inquire for matters of curiosity even so much as the Otahite people did, tho they had before seen almost every thing we had to shew them.
Posted by Arborfield at 15:02
Tahiti to New Zealand
Gentle breezes at South and South-South-West. Clear weather. The Trading party had no Success to-day. The Natives pretend that they have not had time to collect their provisions from the Differant parts of the Island, but that on the Morrow we should have some; and as I had not seen so much of the Island as I desir'd, I resolved to stay one day longer to see if anything was to be got.
Joseph Banks Journal
This morning went to take a farther view of a building which we had seen yesterday and admird a good deal, taking with us Tupias boy Tayeto for himself was too much engagd with his freinds to have time to accompany us. The boy told us that it was calld Ewharre no Eatua or the house of the god but could not explain at all the use of it. It consisted of a chest whose lid was nicely sewd on and thatched over very neatly with palm nut leaves, the whole was fixd upon two poles by little arches of carvd wood very neat; these poles seemd to be usd in carrying it from place to place tho when we saw it it was supported upon two posts. One end of the chest was open with a round hole within a square one, this was yesterday stopd up with a peice of cloth which least I should offend the people I left untouchd, but to day the cloth and probably the contents of the chest were removd as there was nothing at all in it.
Trade today does not go on with any spirit, the people when any thing is offerd will not take it on their own judgement, but take the opinion of 20 or 30 people about them which takes up much time; we however got 11 piggs.
Winds Southerly, fine pleasant weather. At 3 p.m. anchored in a small Harbour on the West side of the Island called by the Natives Owarhe, in 18 fathoms water, clear ground, and secure from all winds. Soon after, I went on shore, accompanied by Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and Dr. Monkhouse, Tupia, the King of the Island, and some others of the Natives, who had been on board since the morning. The Moment we landed Tupia stripped himself as low as his waist, and desir'd Mr. Monkhouse to do the same. He then sat down before a great number of the Natives that were collected together in a large Shed or House, the rest of us, by his own desire, standing behind; he then begun a long speach or prayer, which lasted near a Quarter of an Hour, and in the Course of this Speech presented to the People two Handkerchiefs, a black silk Neckcloth, some beads, and two very small bunches of Feathers. These things he had before provided for that purpose. At the same time two Chiefs spoke on the other side in answer to Tupia, as I suppose, in behalf of the People, and presented us with some young Plantains plants, and 2 small bunches of Feathers. These were by Tupia order'd to be carried on board the Ship. After the Peace was thus concluded and ratified, every one was at liberty to go where he pleased, and the first thing Tupia did was to go and pay his Oblations at one of the Mories. This seem'd to be a common ceremony with this people, and I suppose always perform'd upon landing on each other's Territories in a peaceable manner. It further appear'd that the things which Tupia gave away was for the God of this People, as they gave us a Hog and some Cocoanuts for our God, and thus they have certainly drawn us in to commit sacriledge, for the Hog hath already received sentence of Death, and is to be dissected to-morrow. A.M. I set about Surveying the Island, and Dr. Monkhouse, with some hands, went ashore to Trade with the Natives, while the Long boat was employ'd compleating our Water.
Joseph Banks Journal
Went ashore this morn and walkd up the hills; found the productions here almost exactly similar to those of Otahite; upon the hills the rocks and clay were burnt if any thing more than they were in that Island. The people also were almost exactly like our late [friends] but rather more stupid and lazy, in proof of which I need only say that we should have gone much higher up the hills than we did if we could have perswauded them to accompany us, whose only excuse was the fear of being killd by the fatigue. Their houses are very neat and their boathouses particularly very large, one of those I measurd 50 long paces in lengh 10 broad and 24 ft high: the Gothick arch of which it consisted was supported on one side by 26, on the other by 30 pillars or rather clumsey thick posts of about 2 ft high and one thick. Most of these were carvd with heads of men, boys or other devices, as the rough fancy and more rough workmanship of these stone hatchet furnishd gentrey suggested and executed. The flats were filld with very fine breadfruit trees and an infinite number of Cocoa nuts, upon which latter the inhabitants seemd to depend much more than those of Otahite; we saw however large spaces occupied by lagoons and salt swamps upon which neither breadfruit nor Cocoa nuts would thrive.
Posted by Arborfield at 08:28
Tahiti to New Zealand
Gentle breezes at North-East and Clear weather. I have before made mention of our departure from Royal Bay on the preceeding forenoon, and likewise that I had determined to run down to Huaheine and Ulietea* (* Raiatea.) before we stood to the Southward; but having discovered, from the Hills of George's Island, an Island laying to the Northward, we first stood that way to take a nearer View of it. This Island is called Tethuroa.* (* Tetiaroa.) It lies North 1/2 West, distant 8 Leagues from Point Venus, and is a small, low, uninhabited Island, frequented by the people of George's Island for fish, with which it is said to abound. At 6 A.M. the Westermost part of York Island bore South-East 1/2 South and the body of George's Island East 1/2 South. Punished the 2 Marines who attempted to desert from us at George's Island with 2 Dozen lashes each, and then released them from Confinement. At Noon the body of York Island* (* Eimeo, or Murea.) bore East by South 1/2 South, Royal Bay South 70 degrees 45 minutes East, distant 61 Miles; and an Island which we took to be Saunder's Island, discovered by Captain Wallace (called by the Natives Topoamanan),* (* Tubuai Manu.) bore South-South-West Latitude observed, 17 degrees 9 minutes South. Saw land bearing North-West 1/2 West, which Tupia calls the Island of Huaheine. Saturday, 15th. Light airs and Variable between the North and West-South-West. Clear weather. At 6 p.m. York Island bore South-East, and Huaheine West-North-West, and at 7 a.m. it bore West. Latitude observed at Noon 16 degrees 50 minutes South. Royal Bay South 37 degrees 30 minutes East, distant 22 Leagues.
15th. Winds at South and South-South-East. A Gentle Breeze, with some few showers of rain. At 6 p.m. the Island of Huaheine West 1/2 South, distant 7 or 8 leagues. At 8 a.m., being close in with the North-West part of the Island, sounded, but had no ground with 80 fathoms. Some of the Natives came off to the Ship, but they were very shy of coming near until they discover'd Tupia; but after that they came on board without hesitation. Among those who came on board was the King of the Island, whose name is Oree. He had not been long on board before he and I exchanged Names, and we afterwards address'd each other accordingly.* (* The Tahitians called Cook Tootee, which was their idea of the sound of his name, with a vowel termination, none of their words ending in a consonant.) At noon the North end of the Island bore South by East 1/2 East, distant 72 Leagues. Latitude observed, 16 degrees 40 minutes South. Three other Islands in sight, namely, Ulietea, Otaha, and Bolabola,* (* Tahaa and Borabora.) so called by the Natives. Joseph Banks Journal 1769 July 15. Calm all last night, this morn hazey so that no land is seen; light breezes and calms succeeding each other all morn. Our Indian often prayd to Tane for a wind and as often boasted to me of the success of his prayers, which I plainly saw he never began till he saw a breeze so near the ship that it generaly reachd her before his prayer was finishd. At sunset a pleasant breeze. Owahine and Ulhietea very plainly seen.
16th. This morn we were very near the Island; some Canoes very soon came off but appeard very much frightned, one however came to us bringing a cheif and his wife, who on Tupia's assurances of Freindship from us came on board. They were like the Otahite people in Language, dress, tattow, in short in Every thing. Tupia has always said that the people of this Island and Urietea will not steal, in which they indeed differ much from our late freinds if they only keep up to their Character. Soon after dinner we came to an anchor in a very fine bay calld by the natives Owalla and immediately went ashore. As soon as we landed Tupia squatted down on the ground and ranging us on one side and the Indians on the other began to pray, our cheif who stood opposite to him answering him in kind of responses. This lasted about a quarter of an hour in which time he sent at different intervals two hankercheifs and some beads he had prepard for the purpose as presents to Eatua; these were sent among many messages which pass'd backwards and forwards with plantains, malapoides etc. In return for this present to the gods which it seems was very acceptable we had a hog given for our Eatua, which in this case will certainly be our bellys.
Posted by Arborfield at 09:31
Sail from Tahiti
Winds Easterly, a light breeze. This morning we was visited by Obariea and several others of our acquaintance, a thing we did not expect after what had hapned but 2 days ago; but this was in some measures owing to Mr. Banks, Dr. Solander, and myself going to Apparra last night, where we so far convinc'd them of our Friendly disposition that several of them were in tears at our coming away. Between 11 and 12 o'Clock we got under Sail, and took our final leave of these People, after a stay of just three Months, the most part of which time we have been upon good terms with them. Some few differences have now and then hapned owing partly to the want of rightly understanding each other, and partly to their natural thievish disposition, which we could not at all times bear with or guard against; but these have been attended with no ill consequence to either side except the first, in which one of them was kill'd, and this I was very sorry for, because from what had hapned to them by the Dolphin I thought it would have been no hard matter to have got and keep a footing with them without bloodshed. For some time before we left this Island several of the Natives were daily offering themselves to go away with us; and as it was thought they must be of use to us in our future discoveries we resolved to bring away one whose name is Tupia, a Chief and a Priest. This man had been with us most part of the time we had been upon the Island, which gave us an opportunity to know something of him. We found him to be a very intelligent person, and to know more of the Geography of the Islands situated in these Seas, their produce, and the religion, laws, and Customs of the inhabitants, than any one we had met with, and was the likeliest person to answer our Purpose. For these reasons, and at the request of Mr. Banks, I received him on board, together with a young Boy, his Servant.
For the first two Months we were at this Island the Natives supplied us with as much Bread fruit, Cocoa Nuts, etc., as we could well dispence with, and now and then a few Hogs, but of these hardly sufficient to give the Ship's company one and sometimes two fresh Meals a week. As to Fowls, I did not see above 3 dozen upon the whole Island, and fish they seldom would part with; but during the last Month we got little refreshment of any sort. The detaining of their Canoes broke off Trade at that time, and it never after was begun again with any Spirit. However, it was not wholy owing to this, but to a Scarcity. The Season for Bread fruit was wholy over, and what other Fruits they had were hardly sufficient for themselves; at least, they did not care to part with them. All sorts of Fruits we purchased with Beads and Nails, not less than 40-penny, for a nail under that size was of no value; but we could not get a Hog above 10 or 12 pounds weight for anything less than a Hatchet, not but that they set great value upon Spike Nails; but, as this was an Article many in the Ship are provided with, the Women soon found a much easier way at coming at them than by bringing Provisions.
Our Traffick with this people was carried on with as much Order as in the best regulated Market in Europe. It was managed ashore chiefly by Mr. Banks, who took uncommon Pains to procure from the Natives every kind of refreshment that was to be got. Axes, Hatchets, Spikes, large Nails, looking Glasses, Knives, and Beads are all highly valued by this People, and nothing more is wanting to Traffick with them for everything they have to dispose of. They are likewise very fond of fine Linnen Cloth, both White and Printed, but an Axe worth half a Crown will fetch more than a Piece of Cloth worth Twenty Shillings. Upon our arrival at Batavia we had certain information that the two ships that were at George's Island some time before our arrival there were both French ships.
Joseph Banks Journal
Depart Otahite About 10 this morn saild From Otahite leaving our freinds Some of them at least I realy beleive personaly sorry for our departure, notwisthstanding the confinement of the day before yesterday had frigh[t]ned and affronted them as much as possible, yet our nearest freinds came on board at this Critical time except only Tubourai and Tamio. We had Oborea, Otheothea, Tayoa, Nuna, Tuanna Matte, Potattou, Polotheara etc. on board when the anchor was weighd; they took their leaves tenderly enough, not without plenty of tears tho intirely without that clamourous weeping made use of by the other Indians, several boats of whoom were about the ship shouting out their lamentations, as vyeing with each other not who should cry most but who should cry loudest -- a custom we had often condemned in conversation with our particular freinds as savouring more of affected than real greif. Tupia who after all his struggles stood firm at last in his resolution of acompanying us parted with a few heartfelt tears, so I judge them to have been by the Efforts I saw him make use of to hide them. He sent by Otheothea his last present, a shirt to Potamai, Dootahah's favourite mistress. He and I went then to the topmast head where we stood a long time waving to the Canoes as they went off, after which he came down and shewd no farther signs of seriousness or concern. In the Evening Tethuroa in sight; before night it appears clearly to be a very low Island and but small, which with Tupias declaring that there were no fixd inhabitants upon it only the people of Otahite who went there for a few days to fish, determind us to content ourselves with what we had seen and stand on in search of Urietea, which he describd to be a well peopled Island as large as Otahite.
Posted by Arborfield at 09:28
I then told the Chiefs that there remain'd nothing more to be done to regain their liberty but to deliver up the Arms the People had taken from the Petty Officer and Corporal, and these were brought on board in less than half an Hour, and then I sent them all on shore. They made but a short stay with our people there before they went away, and most of the natives with them: but they first wanted to give us 4 Hogs. These we refused to except of them, as they would take nothing in return. Thus we are likely to leave these people in disgust with our behaviour towards them, owing wholy to the folly of 2 of our men, for it does not appear that the natives had any hand in inticing them away, and therefore were not the first Agressors. However, it is very certain that had we not taken this step we never should have recovered them. The Petty Officer whom I sent in quest of the deserters told me that the Natives would give him no intelligence where they were, nor those that went along with him, but, on the contrary, grew very troublesome, and, as they were returning in the evening, they were suddenly seized upon by a number of Armed men that had hid themselves in the wood for that purpose. This was after Tootaha had been seized upon by us, so that they did this by way of retaliation in order to recover their Chief; but this method did not meet with the approbation of them all. A great many condemn'd these proceedings, and were for having them set at liberty, while others were for keeping them until Tootaha was releas'd. The dispute went so far that they came from words to blows, and our people were several times very near being set at liberty; but at last the party for keeping them Prevailed, but, as they had still some friends, no insult was offer'd them. A little while after they brought Webb and Gibson, the two deserters, to them as Prisoners likewise; but at last they agreed that Webb should be sent to inform us where the others were. When I came to Examine these 2 Men touching the reasons that induced them to go away, it appeared that an acquaintance they had contracted with 2 Girls, and to whom they had strongly attached themselves, was the Sole reason of their attempting to stay behind. Yesterday we weighed the small Bower Anchor, the Stock of which was so much eaten by the worms as to break in heaving up, and to-day we hove up the best Bower, and found the Stock in the very same Condition. This day we got everything off from the Shore, and to-night everybody lays on board.
The Carpenter employ'd in stocking the Anchors and the Seamen in getting the Ship ready for Sea. This morning we found the Staves of the Cask the Natives stole from us some time ago laying at the Watering place; but they had been Sencible enough to keep the Iron Hoops, and only return what to them was of no use.
Joseph Banks Journal
The night was spent tolerably well, the women cryd a little at first but were soon quieted by asurances that at all events they should not be hurt. At day break a large number of people gatherd about the fort many of them with weapons; we were intirely without defences so I made the best I could of it by going out among them. They wer[e] very civil and shewd much fear as they have done of me upon all occasions, probably because I never shewd the least of them but have upon all our quarrels gone immediately into the thickest of them. They told me that our people would soon return. Acordingly about 8 they did safe and sound, we saw them through our glasses go up the side and immediately dischargd our prisoners, making each such a present as we though[t] would please them with which some were well content. The prisoners from the ship were by this time coming ashore. They were receivd with much joy by the multitude; I met them from the boat but no sign of forgiveness could I see in their faces, they lookd sulky and affronted. I walkd with Oborea along the beach: 4 hoggs were soon offerd me, two from her and as many from Dootahah, I refusd them however positively unless they would sell them which they refusd to do. The rest of the morning was employd in getting the tents aboard, which was done by dinner time and we dind on board. The small bower had been got up and the stock found to be so much worm eaten that we are obligd to make a new one, and as we have no hopes of the best bower being in better repair it is probable that we shall not get to sea this day or two.
On the morn of the 12th, Tupia came on board, he had renewd his resolves of going with us to England, a circumstance which gives me much satisfaction. He is certainly a most proper man, well born, cheif Tahowa or preist of this Island, consequently skilld in the mysteries of their religion; but what makes him more than any thing else desireable is his experience in the navigation of these people and knowledge of the Islands in these seas; he has told us the names of above 70, the most of which he has himself been at. The Captn refuses to take him on his own account, in my opinion sensibly enough, the goverment will never in all human probability take any notice of him; I therefore have resolvd to take him. Thank heaven I have a sufficiency and I do not know why I may not keep him as a curiosity, as well as some of my neighbours do lions and tygers at a larger expence than he will probably ever put me to; the amusement I shall have in his future conversation and the benefit he will be of to this ship, as well as what he may be if another should be sent into these seas, will I think fully repay me. As soon as he had made his mind known he said that he would go ashore and return in the evening, when he would make a signal for a boat to be sent off for him; he took with him a miniature picture of mine to shew his freinds and several little things to give them as parting presents. After dinner we went ashore to the Marai no Dootahah of which I was desirous to have a drawing made and had not yet done it. We no sooner landed than several of our freinds, those who were not totaly afronted at the imprisonment of the day before yesterday, came to meet us; we proceeded with them to Dootahahs house where was Oborea etc. They were glad to see us and a perfect reconciliation ensued, in consequence of which they promisd to visit us tomorrow morning to take their leave of us, as we told them that we should sail before noon. With them was Tupia who most willingly returnd in the boat with us aboard the ship where he took up his lodgins for the first time.
Posted by Arborfield at 08:02
The 2 Marines not returning this morning, I began to enquire after them, and was inform'd by some of the Natives that they were gone to the Mountains, and that they had got each of them a Wife and would not return; but at the same time no one would give us any certain intelligence where they were, upon which a resolution was taken to seize upon as many of the Chiefs as we could. This was thought to be the readiest method to induce the other natives to produce the 2 Men. We had in our custody Obariea, Toobouratomita, and 2 other Chiefs, but that I know'd Tootaha would have more weight with the Natives than all these put together, I dispatched Lieutenant Hicks away in the Pinnace to the place where Tootaha was, to endeavour to decoy him into the Boat and bring him on board, which Mr. Hicks performed without the least disturbance. We had no sooner taken the other Chiefs into Custody in Mr. Banks's Tent than they became as desirous of having the Men brought back has they were before of keeping them, and only desir'd that one of our people might be sent with some of theirs for them. Accordingly I sent a petty officer and the Corporal of Marines with 3 or 4 of their People, not doubting but they would return with the 2 Men in the evening; but they not coming as soon as I expected, I took all the Chiefs on board the ship for greater safety. About 9 o'Clock in the evening Webb, the Marine, was brought in by some of the natives and sent on board. He informed me that the Petty Officer and Corporal that had been sent in quest of them were disarm'd and seiz'd upon by the natives, and that Gibson was with them. Immediately upon getting this information I dispatch'd Mr. Hicks away in the Long boat with a strong party of men to rescue them but before he went Tootaha and the other Chiefs was made to understand that they must send some of their People with Mr. Hicks to shew him the place where our men were, and at the same time to send orders for their immediate releasement, for if any harm came to the men they (the Chiefs) would suffer for it; and I believe at this time they wished as much to see the Men return in safety as I did, for the guides conducted Mr. Hicks to the place before daylight, and he recovered the men without the least opposition, and return'd with them about 7 o'Clock in the morning of the 11th.
Joseph Banks Journal
We are told by the Indians this morn that our people do not intend to return; they are they say gone up into the mountains where our people cannot get at them and one is already married and become an inhabitant of Otahite. After some deliberation however Tuanne matte and Patea undertook to carry our people to the place where they were; they were known to have no arms so two were thought sufficient for the service, a midshipman and a marine, who set off without loss of time. We were now quite ready for the sea so no time was to be lost in recovering the deserters. The Indians gave us but little hopes of our people bringing them back: one certain method remaind however in our power, the seizing of some of their principal people and detaining them, which was immediately resolvd upon. Oborea, Potattow, Polotheara, Tubourai, Tamio, Tuarua, Otheothea and Tetuahitea and Nuna were in the fort and were told that they would not be permitted to go from it till our people returnd. At first they were not at all alarmd, they hardly beleivd us in earnest till they saw the Pinnace come ashore and soon after go away to the westward, the[y] immediately suspected what was the case, that she was gone to fetch Dootahah. They were now alarmd but depending on our having usd them well on all occasions shewd but little signs of either discontent or fear, but assurd us that the people should be brought back as soon as possible. In the evening Dootahah was brought on board, Lieutenant Hickes who had been sent on the service found him at Tettahah and easily took him or rather stole him from the people. Night came on, it was thought unsafe to let the prisoners remain in the fort, which was totaly dismantled; Oborea, Potattow and Tubourai were orderd to the ship; in going into the boat they expressd much fear and shed many tears. The Captn staid on board with them, I slept ashore and the rest of the prisoners in my tent. About 8 our Indians came back with the two deserters but brought the disagreable news of one of the people who had been sent after them being seizd by the Indians, who declard that they would not release them till Dootahah had his liberty. The news was sent aboard and a boat came off immediately for Nuna and Tuanne matte. They were sent to the ship, a boat armd went immediately in search of the people and in her the latter and Tupia who was our voluntary prisoner.
Sydney Parkinson’s Journal
Hearing no tidings of the two men who deserted us, we resolved to seize several of the principal people, and detain them till we could recover them: we also sent a party in the pinnace who apprehended Tcotahau, and brought him to the ship; upon which Oboreah, and several other of the chiefs, sent out their servants, who returned in the evening with one of them, and re-page 36ported that the Indians had detained one of our officers who commanded the party sent out after him; also one of the men who accompanied him, and, having seized their arms, used them very roughly; upon which the marines were dispatched in the long-boat after them, taking with them some of the natives. In the mean time, the natives, whom we had made prisoners, not knowing what would be their fate, were much alarmed; but the next morning the marines returned with the men that had been detained, with the others that had deserted; and the natives, whom we had imprisoned, were released. After making strong professions of friendship, they left us; and, as soon as they reached the shore, bent their course, as fast as possible, to Opare, shewing tokens of displeasure as they went along.
Posted by Arborfield at 19:19
When, sometime in the Middle Watch, Clement Webb and Saml. Gibson, both Marines and young Men, found means to get away from the Fort (which was now no hard matter to do) and in the morning were not to be found. As it was known to everybody that all hands were to go on board on the Monday morning, and that the ship would sail in a day or two, there was reason to think that these 2 Men intended to stay behind. However I was willing to stay one day to see if they would return before I took any step to find them.
Joseph Banks Journal
Our freinds with us early in the morning as usual, some I beleive realy sorry at the aproach of our departu[r]e others desirous to make as much as they can of our stay. Several of the people were this evening out on liberty. Two foreign seamen were together and one had his knife stolen; he atempted to recover it, may be roughly, for the Indians attackd him and wounded him greivously with a stone over his eye, the other was also slightly wounded in the head; the people who had done this immediately fled to the mountains. Two of our marines left the fort some time last night or this morn without leave. Their doing this at a time when our departure is so near makes us suspect them of an intention of staying among these people; nothing however has been said about them today in hopes of their returning which they have not yet done.
Sydney Parkinson’s Journal
Two of our marines being enamoured with a girl, one of the natives deserted from the sort, and fled to the west part of the island, and intended to have staid there. On the same day one of the natives stole a knife from one of our sailors, and wounded him with it in the forehead, almost through his skull: — a fray ensued, and the Indians ran away. Most of the materials which composed the fort having been taken down, and put on board the ship, we prepared to set fail.
Posted by Arborfield at 07:33
Joseph Banks Journal
Our freinds with us as usual, the fort more and more dismantled. Our freinds seem resolvd to stay till we got tho the greatest part of them are absolutely without victuals; we have been for some days obligd to spare them every little assistance that we can and the best of them are most thankfull for a single basket of apples. Notwithstanding this we had 4 small pigs brought today from Oborea and Polotheara.
Posted by Arborfield at 20:13
Joseph Banks Journal
The carpenters were this morn employd in taking down the gates and palisades of our little fortification to make us firewood for the ship, when one of the Indians without made shift to steal the staple and hook of the great gate. We were immediately app[r]ised of the theft to the great affright of our visiters of whoom the bell tent was full; their fears were however presently quieted and I (as usual) set out on my ordinary occupation of theif catching. The Indians most readily joind me and away we set full cry much like a pack of fox hounds, we ran and walkd and walkd and ran for I beleive 6 miles with as little delay as possible, when we learnt that we had very early in the chase passd our game who was washing in a brook, saw us a coming and hid himself in the rushes. We returnd to the place and by some intelligence which some of our people had got found a scraper which had been stole from the ship and was hid in those very rushes; with this we returnd and soon after our return Tubourai brought the staple.
Posted by Arborfield at 12:19
Joseph Banks Journal
We begin now to prepare in earnest for our departure, the sails were today carried on board and bent, the guns also were taken on board. Our freinds begin now to beleive that we are realy preparing for our departure, a circumstance which they have of late much doubted. This evening we had a second visit from Teareederry and Toimata, the people again paying them the same respect as on the 21st of June: poor Toimata was again baulkd in her desire of seeing the fort, Oamo insisting that she should not come in. Soon after these had left us some of our freinds came to inform us that Monaamia the man who stole the Quadrant was landed and meant this night to make an atempt upon us; all were ready to assist us and several, Tuanne Matte especialy, very desirous of sleeping in the Fort, which probably was the reason why this arch theif did not this night exercise his abilities.
Sydney Parkinson’s Journal
In the evening, a young woman came to the entrance of the fort, whom we found to be a daughter of Oamo. The natives complimented her on her arrival, by uncovering their shoulders. We invited her to the tent, but she did not accept of it.
Posted by Arborfield at 07:58
Joseph Banks Journal
This morn I saw the operation of Tattowing the buttocks performd upon a girl of about 12 years old, it provd as I have always suspected a most painfull one. It was done with a large instrument about 2 inches long containing about 30 teeth, every stroke of this hundreds of which were made in a minute drew blood. The patient bore this for about ¼ of an hour with most stoical resolution; by that time however the pain began to operate too stron[g]ly to be peacably endurd, she began to complain and soon burst out into loud lamentations and would fain have persuaded the operator to cease; she was however held down by two women who sometimes scolded, sometimes beat, and at others coaxd her. I was setting in the adjacent house with Tomio for an hour, all which time it lasted and was not finishd when I went away tho very near. This was one side only of her buttocks for the other had been done some time before. The arches upon the loins upon which they value themselves much were not yet done, the doing of which they told causd more pain than what I had seen. About dinner time many of our freinds came, Oamo, Otheothea, Tuarua etc.
Posted by Arborfield at 20:51
Joseph Banks Journal
Very little company today. I employd myself in planting a large quantity of the seeds of Water melons, Oranges, Lemons, limes etc. which I had brought from Rio de Janeiro; they were planted on both sides of the fort in as many varieties of soil as I could chuse. I have very little Doubt of the former especialy coming to perfection as I have given away large quantities among the natives and planted also in the woods; they now continualy ask me for seeds and have already shewd me melon plants of their raising which look perfectly well. The seeds that Captn Cooke sewd have provd so bad that no one has come up except mustard, even the Cucumbers and melons have faild, owing probably to the method of their being packd which was in small bottles seald down with rosin.
Posted by Arborfield at 13:19
Joseph Banks Journal
This morn very early Mr Monkhouse and myself set out, resolving to follow the cour[s]e of the valley down which our river comes in order to see how far up it was inhabited etc. etc. When we had got about 2 miles up it we met several of our neighbours coming down with loads of breadfruit upon their backs. We had often wonderd from whence the small supplys of breadfruit we had came, as there was none to be seen upon the flats, but they soon explaind the mystery, shewing us breadfruit trees planted on the sides of the hills and telling us at the same time that when the fruit in the flats faild this became ready for use, which had been by them planted upon the hills to preserve the succession. The quantity was they informd us much less than was in the low land and not sufficient by any means to supply all the interval of scarcity; when this was exhausted they must live upon ahee nuts, Plantains, and Vae, a wild plantain which grows very high up in the mountains.
How the Dolphins who were here much about this time came to find so great plenty of Breadfruit upon the trees is to me a mystery, unless perhaps the seasons of this fruit alter; as for their having met with a much larger supply of hoggs fowls etc. than we have done I can most readily account for that, as we have found by constant experience that these people may be frightned into any thing. They have often describd to us the terrour which the Dolphins guns put them into and when we ask how many people were killd they number names upon their fingers, some ten some twenty some thirty, and then say worrow worow the same word as is usd for a flock of birds or a shoal of fish: the Journals also serve to confirm this opinion. 'When” say they 'towards the latter end of our time provisions were scarce a party of men were sent towards Eparre to get hoggs etc. an office which they had not the smallest dificulty in performing, for the people as they went along the shore drove out their hoggs to meet them and would not allow them to pay any thing for them.' We proceeded about 4 miles farther and had houses pretty plentifully on each side the river, the vally being all this way 3 or 400 yards across. We were now shewn a house which we were told would be the last we should see, the master offerd us Cocoa nutts and we refreshd ourselves. Beyond this we went maybe 6 miles (it is dificult to guess distances when roads are bad as this was, we being generaly obligd to travel along the course of the river) we passd by several hollow places under stones where they told us that people who were benighted slept. At lengh we arrivd at a place where the river was bankd on each side with steep rocks, and a caskade which fell from them made a pool so deep that the Indians said we could not go beyond it, they never did, their business lay upon the rocks on each side on the plains above which grew plenty of Vae. The avenues to these were truly dreadfull, the rocks were nearly perpendicular, one near 100 feet in hight, the face of it constantly wet and slippery with the water of numberless springs; directly up the face even of this was a road, or rather a succession of long peices of the bark of Hibiscus tiliaceus which servd them as a rope to take hold of and scramble up from ledge to ledge, tho upon those very ledges none but a goat or an Indian could have stood. One of these ropes was near 30 feet in lengh. Our guides offerd to help us up this pass but rather recomended one lower down a few hundred yards which was much less dangerous, tho we did not chuse to venture, as the sight which was to reward our hazard was nothing but a grove of Vae trees which we had often seen before.
In the whole course of this walk the rocks were almost constantly bare to the view, so that I had a most excellent opportunity of searching for any apearance of minerals but saw not the smallest. The stones every where shewd manifest signs of having been at some time or other burnd; indeed I have not seen a specimen of stone yet in the Island that has not the visible marks of fire upon it, small peices indeed of the hatchet stone may be without them but I have peices of the same species burnd almost to a pumice, the very clay upon the hills gives manifest signs of fire. Possibly the Island owes its original to a volcano which now no longer burns; or Theoreticaly speaking, for the sake of those authors who balance this globe by a proper weight of continent placed near about these latitudes, that so nesscessary continent may have been sunk by Dreadfull earthquakes and Volcanos 2 or 300 fathoms under the sea, the tops of the highest mountains only still remain[in]g above water in the shape of Islands: an undoubted proof that such a thing now exists to the great emolument of their theory, which was it not for this proof would dhave been already totaly demolishd by the Course our ship made from Cape Horn to this Island.
Posted by Arborfield at 07:23
Upon my return to the Ship I found that the Provisions had been all examined and the Water got on board, amounting to 65 Tons. I now determind to get everything off from the Shore and leave the Place as soon as possible. The getting the several Articles on board, and Scraping and paying the Ship's side, took us up the following Week without anything remarkable happening.
Joseph Banks Journal
All our freinds crouded this morn to See us and tell us that they were rejoicd at our return, nor were they empty handed, most of them brought something or other. The Canoes were still in the river: Captn Cooke finding that there was no likelihood now of any of the stolen goods being restord resolvd to let them go as soon as he could. His freind Potattow sollicited for one which was immediately granted as it was imagind the favour was askd for some of his freinds, but no sooner did he begin to move the boat than the real owners and a number of Indians opposd him, telling him and his people very clamorously that it did not belong to them. He answerd that he had bought it of the Captn and given a pig for it. The people were by this declaration satisfied and had we not luckily overheard it he would have taken away this and probably soon after have sollicited for more. On being detected he became so sulky and ashamd that for the rest of the day neither he or his wife would open their mouths or look streight at any of us.
Posted by Arborfield at 08:35
Tahiti: Expedition round Island
Early in the Morning proceeded on our rout, and without meeting with anything remarkable, got on board the Ship on Saturday, the , having made the Circuit of the whole Island, which I Estimated at something more than 30 Leagues. The Plan or Sketch which I have drawn, altho' it cannot be very accurate, yet it will be found sufficient to point out the Situation of the different Bays and Harbours and the true figure of the Island, and I believe is without any Material error. For the first 2 or 3 days we was out upon this excursion we labour'd under some difficulty for want of Provisions--particularly bread--an Article we took but little of with us--not doubting that we should get bread fruit, more than sufficient for a Boat's Crew at every place we went to, but, on the Contrary, we found the season for that fruit wholy over, and not one to be seen on the Trees, and all other fruit and roots were scarce. The Natives live now on Sour paist--which is made from bread fruit--and some bread fruit and plantains that they get from the Mountains where the season is Later, and on a Nut not unlike a chessnut which are now in Perfection; but all these Articles are at present very scarce, and therefore it is no wonder that the Natives have not supply'd us with these things of Late.
Joseph Banks Journal
After having slept last night without the least interuption we proceeded forwards but during the whole day saw little or nothing worth observation. We bought a little bread fruit which article has been equaly scarce all round the Island, more so even than it is at Matavie. At night we came to Atahourou, the very place at which we were on the 28th of May: here we were among our intimate freinds, who expressd the pleasure they had in entertaining us by giving us a good supper and good beds, in which we slept the better for being sure of reaching Matavie tomorrow night at the farthest. Here we learnd that the bread fruit (a little of which we saw just sprouting upon the trees) would not be fit to use in less than 3 months.
In the morning proceed homewards without meeting any thing new, the countrey we pass'd by and over being the same as we had gone over on the 28th of last month. The day turnd out rainy and bad, the only bad weather we have had since we left the ship, in which instance we are certainly fortunate as we had neither of us a change of Cloaths with us, so little did either of us expect to go round the Island when we set out from Matavie.
Posted by Arborfield at 17:14