1st January 1771

[At Batavia]
In the P.M. stood over for the Sumatra Shore, having the wind at South-South-West, a fresh breeze, and the current in our favour; but this last shifted and set to the Eastward in the Evening, and obliged us to Anchor in 30 fathoms, under the Islands which lay off Verekens point, which point constitutes the narrowest part of the Straits of Sunda. Here we found the current set to the South-West the most part of the night; at 5 a.m. weigh'd with the wind at North-West, and stood to the South-West between the Island Thwart-the-way and Sumatra; the wind soon after coming to the westward we stood over for the Java Shore. At noon the South point of Peper Bay bore South-West by South, and Anger Point North-East 1/2 East, distant 2 Leagues; tacked and stood to the North-West.

Joseph Banks Journal
Workd all night and today likewise. At night Anchord under a high Island call[d] in the draughts Cracatoa and by the Indians Pulo Racatta. I had been unacountably troubled with Musquitos ever since we left Batavia, and still imagin'd that they increasd instead of decreasing, although my opinion was universaly thought improbable; today however the mystery was discoverd, for on getting up water today, Dr Solander who happned to stand near the scuttle cask observd an infinite number of them in their water state in it, who as soon as the sun had a little effect upon the water began to come out in real Effective mosquetos incredibly fast.

31st December 1770

[At Batavia]
At 1 P.M. the wind veer'd to the Northward; we tack and stood to the Westward, and weather'd Pulo Baby. In the Evening Anchor'd between this Island and Bantam Bay, the Island bearing North, distant 2 miles, and Bantam Point West; at 5 a.m. weighed with the wind at West by South, which afterwards proved variable; at noon Bantam Point South-West 1/2 West, distant 3 Leagues.

Joseph Banks Journal
Workd all day against the wind hoping to see some boat come off to us which might sell us fruits or greens, but none came.

29th & 30th December 1770

[At Batavia]
29th. In the P.M. anchored in 12 fathoms water in the Evening until daylight, when we got again under Sail, with the wind at West-South-West, and stood out North-West for the Thousand Islands. Before noon the wind veer'd to North-West, and we endeavour'd to turn through between Pulo Pare and Wapping Island.

30th. After making a short trip to the North-East, we tacked, and weather'd Pulo Pare, and stood in for the Main, having the wind at North-West, a fresh breeze. We fetched Maneaters Island (a small island laying under the Main midway between Batavia and Bantam) after making a trip to the North-East, and finding that we lost ground, we stood in shore again and anchored in 13 fathoms, the above mentioned Island bearing South-West by West, distant 1 mile, and in one with Bantam Hill. At 7 A.M. weighed, with the wind at West-South-West, and stood to the North-West, and weather'd Wapping Island, having the current in our favour.

Joseph Banks Journal
29th. We were again fortunate and at night anchord under Pulo Babi.

30th. This day in Entering the Narrows we found some dificulty, and at night came to an anchor under some small Islands on the Coast of Sumatra almost abreast of Thwart the Way, from whence we saw a large Dutch Ship at an anchor under North Island, a small Island likewise on the Sumatra Coast to the N of us.

Sumatra in this place was very woody and seemd but thinly inhabited; there were however some cleard spots and a few fires seen.

27th & 28th December 1770

[At Batavia]
27th. Moderate breezes at West and North-West, with fair weather. At 6 a.m. weighed, and stood out to Sea; at Noon the Island of Edam bore North by East, distant 3 miles.

28th. Winds variable between the North and West. At 6 in the Evening anchored in 13 fathoms, Edam Island bearing East, distant 1 1/2 miles. At day light in the morning weighed again, and keept plying to windward between Edam and Duffin's Island, but gained very little owing to the variableness of the winds.

26th December 1770

[At Batavia]
In the P.M. myself, Mr. Banks, and all the Gentlemen came on board, and at 6 a.m. weigh'd and came to sail with a light breeze at South-West. The Elgin Indiaman saluted us with 3 cheers and 13 Guns, and soon after the Garrison with 14, both of which we return'd. Soon after this the Sea breeze set in at North by West, which obliged us to Anchor just without the Ships in the Road. The number of Sick on board at this time amounts to 40 or upwards, and the rest of the Ship's Company are in a weakly condition, having been every one sick except the Sailmaker, an old Man about 70 or 80 years of age; and what is still more extraordinary in this man is his being generally more or less drunk every day. But notwithstanding this general sickness, we lost but 7 men in the whole: the Surgeon, 3 Seamen, Mr. Green's Servant, and Tupia and his Servant, both of which fell a sacrifice to this unwholesome climate before they had reached the object of their wishes. Tupia's death, indeed, cannot be said to be owing wholy to the unwholesome air of Batavia; the long want of a Vegetable Diet, which he had all his life before been used to, had brought upon him all the Disorders attending a Sea life. He was a shrewd, sensible, ingenious man, but proud and obstinate, which often made his situation on board both disagreeable to himself and those about him, and tended much to promote the diseases which put a Period to his Life.* (* It is rather curious that Cook does not here record his sense of the value of Tupia's services as interpreter, which he has before alluded to in the Journal. There is no doubt that his presence on board when the ship was in New Zealand was the greatest advantage, affording a means of communication with the natives, which prevented the usual gross misunderstandings which arise as to the object of the visit of an exploring ship. Without him, even with Cook's humane intention and good management, friendly relations would have been much more difficult to establish.)

Joseph Banks Journal
Weighd and having very faint land breeze got no farther than to the Island of Edam.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
On the 26th of December, we weighed anchor, and sailed from the bay of Batavia.

(Tragically, Sydney had exactly one month to live at this point.)

Christmas Day 1770

[At Batavia]
Having now compleatly refitted the ship, and taken in a sufficient quantity of Provisions of all kinds, I this afternoon took leave of the General, and such others of the principal Gentlemen as I had any connection with, all of whom upon every occasion gave me all the assistance I required. A small dispute, however, now hapned between me and some of the Dutch Naval Officers about a Seaman that had run from one of the Dutch Ships in the Road, and enter'd on board mine; this man the General demanded as a Subject of Holland, and I promised to deliver him up provided he was not an English Subject, and sent the necessary orders on board for that purpose. In the morning the Commodore's Captain came and told me that he had been on board my ship for the man, but that the Officer had refused to give him up, alledging that he was an Englishman, and that he, the Captain, was just then come from the General to demand the man of me as a Deanish Subject, he standing upon their Ship's books as born at Elsinore. I told him that I believed there must be some mistake in the General's message, for I apprehended he would not demand a Deanish Seaman from me who had committed no other crime than preferring the English Service before that of the Dutch; but to convince him how unwilling I was to disoblige any one concerned, I had sent orders on board to deliver the man to him in case he was found to be a Foreigner; but as that was not done I suspected that the man was a Subject of England, and if I found him to be such I was resolved to keep him. Soon after this I received a letter from Mr. Hicks, which I carried to the Shabander, and desired that it might be shewn to the General, and at the same time to acquaint him that, after my having such unanswerable proof of the man's being an English Subject, as was mentioned in that letter, it was impossible for me to deliver him up. After this I heard no more about it.

Joseph Banks Journal
Xmas day by our account being fixd for sailing, we this morn hird a large countrey Praw, which came up to the door and took in Dr Solander, now tolerably recoverd, and carried him on board the ship where in the evening we all joind him. There was not I beleive a man in the ship but gave his utmost aid to getting up the Anchor, so compleatly tird was every one of the unwholesome air of this place. We had buried here 8 people, in general however the Crew was in rather better health than they had been a fortnight before. While we were at work a man was missd who it was supposd did not intend to stay ashore, so a boat was sent after him, which before its return delayd us so long that we lost intirely the sea breeze, and were obligd to come too again a few cables lenghs only from where we lay before.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
One of our midshipmen ran away from us here, and it was suspected that he was the person who cut off Orton’s ears.

19th to 24th December 1770

[At Batavia]
Fresh breezes, and for the most part fair weather. Completed taking on board Provisions, Water, etc., and getting the Ship ready for sea.

16th to 18th December 1770

[At Batavia]
16th - 17th.  Employ'd taking on board Provisions; Scraping and Painting the Ship.

18th. Gentle breezes and fair weather. Anchored here the Phoenix, Captain Black, an English Country Ship from Bencoolen.

Joseph Banks Journal
16th. Arrivd the Phoenix Captn Black, a private trader from India. Our departure being now very soon to take place, I thought it would be very convenient to cure the ague which had now been my constant companion for many weeks; accordingly I took decoction of bark plentifully, and in three or 4 days missd it. I then went to town, settled all my affairs and remaind impatient to have the day fix'd.

15th December 1770

[At Batavia]
In the P.M. anchor'd here the Earl of Elgin, Captain Cooke, an English East India Company Ship from Madras, bound to China, but having lost her passage, put in here to wait for the next Season.

Joseph Banks Journal
Arrivd the Earl of Elgin Indiaman Captn Cooke, having lost her passage to China, and being in want of anchors, cables and other stores. Dr Solander continued to mend tho slowly.

11th to 14th December 1770

[At Batavia]
For the most part of these days fair weather. Employ'd taking on board Provisions and Water; this last is put on board at 5 shillings a Leager or 150 Gallons.

10th December 1770

[At Batavia]
For the most part Squally, with rain; the people employ'd scraping the paint work.

8th & 9th December 1770

[At Batavia]
8th. Fresh breezes Westerly, and fair weather. At 10 A.M. weigh'd and run up to Batavia road, where we anchor'd in 4 1/2 fathoms water.

9th. First and latter parts ditto weather, middle squally with rain. In the P.M. sent on shore a Boat load of empty casks, and at the same time went myself in order to forward the things we wanted, and in the evening sent on board the new Pump, with some other stores that were immediately wanting.

7th December 1770

Joseph Banks Journal
We receivd the agreable news of the ships arrival in the road, having compleated all her rigging etc. etc. and having now nothing to take in but provisions and a little water. The people on board however were extremely sickly and several had dyed, a circumstance necessarily productive of delays; indeed had the ships company been strong and healthy we should have been before now at Sea.

Dr Solander had chang'd much for the better within these two last days, so that our fears of losing him were intirely dissipated, for which much praise is due to his ingenious Physician Dr Jaggi who at this Juncture especialy was indefatigable.

26th November to 7th December 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
26th. In the night had much rain, after which the Westerly Monsoons set in, which blow here generally in the night from the South-West or from the land, in the day from the North-West or North.

27th November to 7th December.
Employ'd getting on board Stores, Provisions, Water, rigging the Ship, repairing and bending the Sails. On the last of these days, having got all the Sick on board, and every other thing from the Island, we hauled off from the Wharfe with a design to run up to Batavia road, but the Wind proving scant obliged us to lay at anchor.

Joseph Banks Journal
We had for some nights now had the wind on the western board, generaly attended with some rain, thunder and lightning; this night blew strong at SW and raind etc. harder than ever I saw it before for 3 or 4 hours; Our house raind in in every part, and through the lower part of it ran a stream almost capable of turning a mill. In the morn I went to Batavia, where the quantities of Bedding that I every where saw hung up to dry made a very uncommon sight; for every house that I was acquainted with, and I was told almost every house in the town and neighbourhood, sufferd more or less.

This was certainly the shifting of the Monsoon, for the winds which had before been con[s]tantly to the Eastward Remaind ever after on the western bord; the people here however told us that it did not commonly shift so suddenly, and were loth to believe that the westerly winds were realy set in for several days after. Dr Solander was recovered enough to be able to walk about the house but gatherd strengh very slowly. Myself was given to understand that curing my ague was of very little consequence while the cause remaind in the badness of the air; the Physician however bled me and gave me frequent gentle purges, which he told me would make the attacks less violent, as was realy the case; they came generaly about the hour of 2 or 3 in the afternoon, a time when every body in these climates is asleep, and by 4 or 5 I generaly had recoverd to get up and walk in the garden etc. The rainy season was now set in and we had generaly some rain in the night; the days were more or less cloudy and sometimes wet; this however was not always the case, for after this time we had once a whole week of dry clear weather. The Frogs in the diches, whose voices were ten times louder than those of European ones, made a noise on those nights when rain was to be expected almost intolerable; and the Mosquitos, or Gnats, who had been sufficiently troublesome even in the dry time, now breeding in every splash of water became innumerable, especialy in the Moonlight nights; their stings however tho painfull and troublesome enough at the time never continued to itch above half an hour, so that no man in the day time was troubled with the bites of the night before. Indeed I never met with any whose bites caus'd swellings that remaind 24 hours, except the Midges or Gnats of Lincolnshire (which are identicaly the same insect as is calld Mosquito in most parts of the world) and the sand flies of North America.

Dr Solander had a return of his fever which increasd gradualy for 4 or 5 days, when he became once more in imminent danger.

17th to 25th November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
Employ'd rigging the Ship, getting on board Stores and Water, which last we have sent from Batavia at the rate of Six shillings and 8 pence a Leager, or 150 Gallons.  We are now become so sickly that we seldom can muster above 12 or 14 hands to do duty.

16th November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
Employ'd taking in Coals and Ballast; sent one of the decay'd Pumps up to Batavia to have a new one made by it.

15th November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
In the A.M. transported the Ship from Onrust to Cooper's Island, and moored her alongside the Wharf.

14th November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
Employ'd clearing the Ship of the Carreening gear, her bottom being now thoroughly repair'd, and very much to my satisfaction. In justice to the Officers and Workmen of this Yard, I must say that I do not believe that there is a Marine Yard in the World where work is done with more alertness than here, or where there are better conveniences for heaving Ships down both in point of safety and despatch. Here they heave down by 2 masts, which is not now Practised by the English; but I hold it to be much safer and more expeditious than by heaving down by one mast; a man must not only be strongly bigotted to his own customs, but in some measure divested of reason, that will not allow this, after seeing with how much ease and safety the Dutch at Onrust heave down their largest ships.

Joseph Banks Journal
This day we had the agreable news of the repairs of the ship being compleatly finishd and that she was returnd again to Coopers Island, where she provd to be no longer at all leaky. When examind she had provd much worse than any body expected, her main plank being in many places so cut by the rocks that not more than one eighth of an inch in thickness remaind, and here the worm had got in and made terrible havock; her false keel intirely gone, and her main keel much wound'd.

These damages were now however intirely repaird, and very well too in the opinion of Every body who saw the Duch artificers do their work. This completion of our repairs gave us hopes that our stay here would be of no very long duration, as we had now nothing to do but to get on board our stores and provisions; but our hopes were not a little dampd by the accounts we every day had from the ship, where the people were so sickly that not above 13 or 14 were able to stand to their work.

Dr Solander grew better tho by very slow degrees; myself soon had a return of my ague which now became quotidian, the Captain also was taken ill on board and of course we sent his servant to him, soon after which both Mr Sporing and our seaman were seizd with intermittents, so that we were again reduc'd to the melancholy necessity of depending intirely upon the Malays for nursing us, all of whoom were often sick together.

13th November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
This day they hove the Starboard side Kiel out, which we found very little damaged, and was therefore soon done with.

Joseph Banks Journal
As Dr Jaggi had all along insisted on the Countrey air as necessary for our recovery, I immediately agreed with my Landlord Vn Heys for his countrey house, which he immediately furnishd for us, and agreed to supply us with provisions and give us the use of 5 slaves who were there, as well as three we were to take with us at a dollar a day, 4s/ more than our common agreement. This countrey house tho small and very bad was situate about 2 miles out of town in a situation that preposest me much in its favour, being situate on the banks of a briskly running river and well open to the sea breeze, two circumstances which must much contribute to promote circulation of air, a thing of the utmost consequence in a countrey perfectly resembling the low part of my native Lincolnshire. Accordingly, Dr Solander being much better and in the Drs opinion not too bad to be removd, we carried him down to it this day, and also receivd from the ship Mr Sporing our writer, a Seaman, and the Captains own servant who he had sent on hearing of our melancholy situation; so that we were now sufficiently well attended, having 10 Malays and 2 whites besides Mr Sporing. This night however the Dr was extreemly ill, so much so that fresh blisters were applyd to the inside of his thighs which he seemd not at all sensible of; nevertheless in the morn he was something better and from that time recoverd tho by extreemly slow degrees till his second attack. Myself, either by the influence of the Bark of which I had all along taken quantities or by the anziety I sufferd on Dr Solanders account, Miss'd my fever, nor did it return for several days till he became better.

12th November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
In the P.M. finished the Larboard side, and in the A.M. began to get ready to heave out the other.

Joseph Banks Journal
Dr Solander, who had not yet intirely taken to his bed, returnd from airing this even extreemly ill; he went to bed immediately, I sat by him, and soon observd symptoms which alarmd me very much. I sent immediately for Our Physician Dr Jaggi, who apply'd sinapisms to his feet and blisters to the calves of his legs, but at the same time gave me little or no hopes of even the possibility of his living till Morning. Weak as I was I sat by him till morn, when he chang'd very visibly for the better; I then slept a little and waking found him still better than I had any reason to hope.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
While our ship was repairing at Unrust, most of the crew were at Cooper’s-island, where they were taken with a putrid dysentery; three of whom, the steward of the gun-room, one of the seamen, and a boy, died.

The disorder also carried off Toobaiah, and the lad Taiyota, natives of Otaheite, whom we designed to have brought to England. They had been several times up to Batavia, and expressed great surprize at the many various objects to which they had been unaccustomed: they were particularly struck with the sight of carriages drawn by horses; and were very inquisitive in respect of what they saw, that was new to them; having, before our arrival at Batavia, made great progress in the English tongue, in which they were greatly assisted by Mr. Green, the astronomer, who took much pains therein, particularly with Taiyota. When Taiyota was seized with the fatal disorder, as if certain of his approaching dissolution, he frequently said to those of us who were his intimates, Tyau mate oee, "my friends, I am dying." He took any medicines that were offered him; but Toobaiah, who was ill at the same time, and survived him but a few days, refused every thing of that kind, and gave himself up to grief; regretting, in the highest degree, that he had left his own country, and, when he heard of Taiyota’s death, he was quite inconsolable, crying out frequently, Taiyota! Taiyota! They were both buried in the island of Eadam. During our stay at Batavia, most of us were sickly; Mr. Monkhouse, our surgeon, and the astronomer’s servant, died; and some others hardly escaped with life.

11th November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
In the A.M., having caulked her upper works, hove out the Larboard side again, which a number of Workmen were employ'd repairing.

Joseph Banks Journal
We receivd the news of Tupias death. I had given him quite over ever since his boy died whoom I well knew he sincerely lovd, tho he usd to find much fault with him during his life time.

6th to 10th November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
6th. In the A.M. the officers of the Yard took the Ship in hand, and sent on board a number of Carpenters, Caulkers, Riggers, Slaves, etc., to make ready to heave down.

7th. Employ'd getting ready to heave down in the P.M. We had the misfortune to loose Mr. Monkhouse, the Surgeon, who died at Batavia of a Fever after a short illness, of which disease and others several of our people are daily taken ill, which will make his loss be the more severely felt; he was succeeded by Mr. Perry, his mate, who is equally as well skilled in his profession. 8th. In the night had much Thunder, Lightning, and Rain; during the day fair weather, which gave us time to get everything in readiness for heaving down.

9th. In the P.M. hove the Larboard side of the Ship, Kiel out, and found her bottom to be in a far worse condition than we expected; the false kiel was gone to within 20 feet of the Stern post, the main Kiel wounded in many places very considerably, a great quantity of Sheathing off, and several planks much damaged, especially under the Main Channell near the Kiel, where 2 planks and a 1/2, near 6 feet in length, were within 1/8th of an inch of being cutt through; and here the worms had made their way quite into the timbers, so that it was a matter of surprise to every one who saw her bottom how we had kept her above water, and yet in this condition we had sailed some hundreds of Leagues, in as dangerous a Navigation as in any part of the World, happy in being ignorant of the continual danger we were in.

In the evening righted the Ship, having only time to patch up some of the worst places to prevent the water getting in in large quantitys for the present. In the morning hove her down again, and most of the Carpenters and Caulkers in the Yard (which are not a few) were set to work upon her Bottom, and at the same time a number of Slaves were employ'd bailing the water out of the Hold. Our people, altho' they attend, were seldom called upon; indeed, by this time we were so weakned by sickness that we could not muster above 20 Men and Officers that were able to do duty, so little should we have been able to have hove her down and repair'd her ourselves, as I at one time thought us capable of.

10th. In the P.M. we were obliged to righten the ship before night, by reason of her making water in her upper works faster than we could free; it made it necessary to have her weather works inside and out caulked, which before was thought unnecessary.

Joseph Banks Journal
7th. Dr Solander attended his funeral, and I should certainly have done the same had I not been confind to my bed by my fever. Our case now became melancholy, neither of my Servants were able to help me no more than I was them, and the Malay Slaves who alone we depended upon, naturaly the worst attendants in nature, were render'd less carefull by our incapacity of scolding them on account of our ignorance of the language. When we became so sick that we could not help ourselves, they would get out of Call, so we were oblig'd to lie still till able to get up and go in search of them.

9th. This day we receivd the disagreable news of the death of Tayeto, and that his death had so much affected Tupia that there was little hopes of his surviving him many days.

10th. Dr Solander and myself still grew worse and worse, and the Physician who attended us declard that the countrey air was necessary for our recovery, so we began to look out for a countrey house, tho with a heavy heart as we knew that we must there commit ourselves intirely to the care of the Malays, whose behavior to sick people we had all the reason in the world to find fault with. For this reason we resolvd to buy each of us a Malay Woman to Nurse us, hoping that the tenderness of the sex would prevail even here, which indeed we found it to do for they turnd out by no means bad nurses.

Sydney Parkinson Journal 
At this place our ship was examined; and we found that many of her planks; and her keel, were much damaged; one part of her not being above one-eighth of an inch thick, which was luckily be-fore one of the timbers, or, in all probability, she would have sunk long before we reached the bay of Batavia.

5th November 1770

[Image: Onrust Island]

[Heaving down at Batavia]
Clear, hot sultry weather. In the A.M. transported the ship over to Onrust, alongside one of the Carreening Wharfs.

Joseph Banks Journal
At last after many delays causd by Duch ships which came alon[g]side the wharfs to load Pepper the Endeavour was this day got down to Onrust where she was to be hove down without delay, most welcome news to us all now heartily tired of this unwholsome countrey. Poor Mr Monkhouse became worse and worse without the intervention of one favourable symptom so that we now had little hopes of his life. In the afternoon of this day poor Mr Monkhouse departed the first sacrafice to the climate and the next day was buried.

2nd to 4th November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
Employ'd overhauling the rigging, and making rope, making and repairing Sails.

1st November 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
Got every thing out of the Ship, and all clear for going alongside of the Carreening, but about Noon I received a message from the Officer at Onrust acquainting me that they could not receive us there until they had first despatched the Ships bound to Europe, which were down here taking in pepper.

Joseph Banks Journal
My servants Peter and James were as bad as Myself, and Dr Solander now felt the first attacks of his fever but never having been in his life time once ill resisted it in a manner resolvd not to apply to a physician. But worst of all was Mr Monkhouse the ships surgeon; he was now confind to his bed by a violent fever which grew worse and worse notwithstanding all the Efforts of the Physician.

29th October 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
29th, 30th, & 31st. Employ'd clearing the Ship.

Joseph Banks Journal
After a stay of two days I left Tupia well satisfied in Mind but not at all better in body and returnd to town where I was immediately seizd with a tertian, the fits of which were so violent as to deprive me intirely of my senses and leave me so weak as scarcely to be able to crawl down stairs.

28th October 1770

[Heaving down at Batavia]
Employ'd as above.

Joseph Banks Journal
Accordingly on the 28th I went down with him to Kuyper and on his liking the shore had a tent pitch'd for him in a place he chose where both sea breeze and land breeze blew right over him, a situation in which he expressd great satisfaction. The Seamen now fell sick fast so that the tents ashore were always full of sick.

25th to 27th October 1770

[At Batavia]
25th. In the evening I sent the Admiralty Packet on board the Kronenburg, Captain Fredrick Kelger, Commodore, who, together with another Ship, sails immediately for the Cape, where she waits for the remainder of the Fleet.*

(* The following letter to the Secretary of the Admiralty (now in Public
Record Office) was also dispatched:--

"To Philip Stephens, Esq.


"Please to acquaint my Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty that I left
Rio de Janeiro the 8th of December, 1768, and on the 16th of January
following arrived in Success Bay in Straits La Maire, where we recruited
our Wood and Water; on the 21st of the same month we quitted Straits La
Maire, and arrived at George's Island on the 13th of April. In our
Passage to this Island I made a far more Westerly Track than any Ship had
ever done before; yet it was attended with no discovery until we arrived
within the Tropick, where we discovered several Islands. We met with as
Friendly a reception by the Natives of George's Island as I could wish,
and I took care to secure ourselves in such a manner as to put it out of
the power of the whole Island to drive us off. Some days preceeding the
3rd of June I sent Lieutenant Hicks to the Eastern part of this Island,
and Lieutenant Gore to York Island, with others of the Officers (Mr.
Green having furnished them with Instruments), to observe the Transit of
Venus, that we may have the better Chance of succeeding should the day
prove unfavourable; but in this We were so fortunate that the
observations were everywhere attended with every favourable Circumstance.
It was the 13th of July before I was ready to quitt this Island, after
which I spent near a month in exploring some other Islands which lay to
the Westward, before we steer'd to the Southward. On the 14th of August
we discovered a small Island laying in the Latitude of 22 degrees 27
minutes South, Longitude 150 degrees 47 minutes West. After quitting this
Island I steered to the South, inclining a little to the East, until we
arrived in the Latitude 40 degrees 12 minutes South, without seeing the
least signs of Land. After this I steer'd to the Westward, between the
Latitude of 30 and 40 degrees until the 6th of October, on which day we
discovered the East Coast of New Zeland, which I found to consist of 2
large Islands, extending from 34 to 48 degrees of South Latitude, both of
which I circumnavigated. On the 1st of April, 1770, I quitted New Zeland,
and steer'd to the Westward, until I fell in with the East Coast of New
Holland, in the Latitude of 30 degrees South. I coasted the shore of this
Country to the North, putting in at such places as I saw Convenient,
until we arrived in the Latitude of 15 degrees 45 minutes South, where,
on the night of the 10th of June, we struck upon a Reef of Rocks, were we
lay 23 Hours, and received some very considerable damage. This proved a
fatal stroke to the remainder of the Voyage, as we were obliged to take
shelter in the first Port we met with, were we were detain'd repairing
the damage we had sustain'd until the 4th of August, and after all put to
Sea with a leaky Ship, and afterwards coasted the Shore to the Northward
through the most dangerous Navigation that perhaps ever ship was in,
until the 22nd of same month, when, being in the Latitude of 10 degrees
30 minutes South, we found a Passage into the Indian Sea between the
Northern extremity of New Holland and New Guinea. After getting through
the Passage I stood for the Coast of New Guinea, which we made on the
29th; but as we found it absolutely necessary to heave the Ship down to
Stop her leaks before we proceeded home, I made no stay here, but quitted
this Coast on the 30th of September, and made the best of my way to
Batavia, where we Arrived on the 10th instant, and soon after obtained
leave of the Governor and Council to be hove down at Onrust, where we
have but just got alongside of the Wharf in order to take out our Stores,

"I send herewith a copy of my Journal, containing the Proceedings of the
whole Voyage, together with such Charts as I have had time to Copy, which
I judge will be sufficient for the present to illustrate said Journal. In
this Journal I have with undisguised truth and without gloss inserted the
whole Transactions of the Voyage, and made such remarks and have given
such discriptions of things as I thought was necessary in the best manner
I was Capable off. Altho' the discoverys made in this Voyage are not
great, yet I flatter myself they are such as may Merit the Attention of
their Lordships; and altho' I have failed in discovering the so much
talked of Southern Continent (which perhaps do not exist), and which I
myself had much at heart, yet I am confident that no part of the Failure
of such discovery can be laid to my charge. Had we been so fortunate not
to have run a shore much more would have been done in the latter part of
the Voyage than what was; but as it is, I presume this Voyage will be
found as compleat as any before made to the South Seas on the same
account. The plans I have drawn of the places I have been at were made
with all the Care and accuracy that time and Circumstances would admit
of. Thus far I am certain that the Latitude and Longitude of few parts of
the World are better settled than these. In this I was very much assisted
by Mr. Green, who let slip no one opportunity for making of Observations
for settling the Longitude during the whole Course of the Voyage; and the
many Valuable discoveries made by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander in Natural
History, and other things useful to the learned world, cannot fail of
contributing very much to the Success of the Voyage. In justice to the
Officers and the whole Crew, I must say they have gone through the
fatigues and dangers of the whole Voyage with that cheerfulness and
Allertness that will always do Honour to British Seamen, and I have the
satisfaction to say that I have not lost one Man by sickness during the
whole Voyage. I hope that the repairs wanting to the Ship will not be so
great as to detain us any length of time. You may be assured that I shall
make no unnecessary delay either here or at any other place, but shall
make the best of my way home. I have the Honour to be with the greatest


"Your most Obedient Humble Servant,

"(Signed) JAMES COOK.

"Endeavour Bark,
at Onrust, near Batavia,
the 23rd of October, 1770."

26th. Set up the Ship's Tent for the reception of the Ship's Company, several of them begin to be taken ill, owing, as I suppose, to the extream hot weather.

[Heaving down at Batavia]
27th. Employed getting out Stores, Ballast, etc.

22nd to 24th October 1770

[At Batavia]
22nd. In the A.M. two ships went from the Wharfes at Coopers Island, when we prepared to go along side one of them.

23rd.  In the P.M. hauled along side one of the Wharfes, in order to take out our stores, etc., after which the Ship is to be deliver'd into the Charge of the proper Officers at Onrust, who will (as I am inform'd) heave her down, and repair her, with their own people, while ours must stand and look on, who, if we were permitted, could do every thing wanting to the Ship ourselves.

24th. Employ'd clearing the Ship, having a Store House to put our Stores, etc., in. In the P.M. I went up to Town in order to put on board the first Dutch Ship that Sails, a pacquet for the Admiralty containing a Copy of my Journal, a Chart of the South Sea, another of New Zeeland, and one of the East Coast of New Holland. In the morning the General, accompanied by the Water Fiscall, some of the Council, and the Commodore, each in their respective Boats, went out into the Road on board the oldest Captain, in order to appoint him Commodore of the Fleet, ready to Sail for Holland. The Ships was drawn up in 2 Lines, between which the General past to the new Commodore's Ship, which lay the farthest out. Each ship as he passed and repassed gave him 3 Cheers, and as soon as he was on board, and the Dutch Flag Hoisted at the Main Topmast Head, the other Commodore Saluted him with 21 Guns, and immediately after Struck his Broad Pendant, which was again hoisted as soon as the General left the other Ship; he was then Saluted with 17 Guns by the new made Commodore, who now hoisted a Common Pendant. This Ceremony of appointing a Commodore over the Grand Fleet, as they call it, we were told is Yearly perform'd. I went out in my Boat on purpose to see it, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, because we were told it was one of the Grandest sights Batavia afforded; that may be too, and yet it did not recompense us for our trouble. I thought that the whole was but ill conducted, and the Fleet appear'd to be very badly mann'd. This fleet consists of 10 or 12 stout Ships; not only these, but all or most of their other Ships are pierced for 50 Guns, but have only their upper Tier mounted, and these are more by half than they have men to fight.

21st October 1770

[At Batavia]
In the P.M. orders came down to the Officers of the yard to comply with everything I wanted, but we could not yet get a Wharfe to land our Stores, they being all taken up by shipping.

Joseph Banks Journal
After Petitioning and Repetitioning the Council of the Indies our affairs were at last settled and orders given to heave down the Ship with all expedition, so she this Day went down to Kuyper calld by the English Coopers Island where a warehouse was allotted for her to lay up her stores etc.

We now began sensibly to feel the ill Effects of the unwholesome climate we were in: our appetites and spirits were gone but none were yet realy sick except poor Tupia and Tayeto, both of which grew worse and worse daily so that I began once more to despair of poor Tupias life. At last he desird to be removd to the ship where he said he should breathe a freeer air clear of the numerous houses which he beleivd to be the cause of his disease by stopping the free draught.

19th and 20th October 1770

[At Batavia]
19th. In the P.M. I sent a Petty Officer to Mr. Hicks, who Lodges ashore at Batavia for the recovery of his health, with orders to desire him to wait upon the Shebander, in order to get the necessary orders respecting us dispatched to this place as soon as possible.

20th. Employ'd unrigging the ship, etc.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
20th. All the ships, which are careened and hove-down here, go to a small island in the bay, called Unrust, about seven miles from Batavia; where there is proper tackle to heave them down, and a bass, or overseer, to manage all matters. The whole island is one dock-yard, inhabited entirely by carpenters, and others, who belong to the ships that are there. Near Unrust is another island, called the Kuypers, or Coopers, which is full of warehouses, where ships deposit their goods while they are heaving-down. About a mile from this, there is another island, called Palmirante, where there is an hospital for sick seamen: and upon this island the ships companies inter their dead. There are many other islands in the bay, named Amsterdam, Rotterdam, and Eadam, where the company have rope-manufactories, and send their felons.

18th October 1770

[At Batavia]
In the P.M. received on board 2 live Oxen, 150 Gallons of Arrack, 3 Barrels of Tar, and one of Pitch; at daylight in the A.M. took up our Anchor and run down to Onrust.

At 9 Anchor'd in 7 fathoms off Coopers Island, which lies close to Onrust. There are wharfs at both of these Islands, and ships land there stores, sometimes on the one and sometimes on the other, but it is only at Onrust where the proper conveniences are for heaving down. Soon after we Anchor'd I went on shore to the Officer of the Yard, to see if they could not allow us some place to land our stores, but this could not be granted without orders.

17th October 1770

[At Batavia]
In the P.M. I waited upon the Superintendent of Onrust, with an order from the Shebander, to receive us at that Island, but this order, the Superintendent told me, was not sufficient to impower him to give me the conveniences and assistance I wanted, and when I came to call upon the Shebander, I found this mistake was owing to the word "heave down" being wrong translated; this Circumstance, trifling as it is, will cause a delay of some days, as it cannot be set to rights until next Council day, which is not till Friday.

Joseph Banks Journal
This at once cleard up the account given us by the Indians of Otahite of the two ships which had been there ten Months before us, V.I, p. 164 of this Journal. These were undoubtedly the ships of Mr De Bougainville, and the Indian Otourrou the Brother of Rette Cheif of Hidea. Even the story of the woman was known here--she it seems was a French woman who Followd a young man sent out in the character of Botanist in mens cloaths. As for the Article of the colours, the Indians might easily be Mistaken or Mr De Bougainville if he had traded in the S. Sea under Spanish colours might chuse to go quite across with them. As for the Iron which most misled us that he undoubtedly bought in Spanish America. Besides the Botanist mentiond above these ships were furnish'd with one or more Draughtsmen so that they probably have done some part of our work for us.

16th October 1770

[At Batavia]
Tuesday, 16th. Finding, by a strict inquiry, that there were no private person or persons in the place that could at this time advance me a sufficient sum of money to defray the charge I might be at in repairing and refitting the Ship - at least, if there were any, they would be afraid to do it without leave from the Governor - wherefore I had nothing left but to apply to the Governor himself, and accordingly drew up the following request, which I laid before the Governor and Council this morning, in consequence of which the Shebander had orders to supply me with what money I wanted out of the Company's Treasure:--

"Lieutenant James Cook, Commander of His Brittannick Majesty's Bark the Endeavour, begs leave to represent to His Excellency the Right Honourable Petrus Albertus Van der Parra, Governor-General, etc., etc., That he will be in want of a Sum or Sums of Money in order to defray the Charge he will be at in repairing and refiting His Brittannick Majesty's Ship at this place; which sum or sums of money he is directed by his Instructions, and empower'd by his commission, to give Bills of Exchange on the respective Offices which Superintend His  Brittannick Majesty's Navy.

"The said Lieutenant James Cook Requests of His Excellency, That he will be pleased to order him to be supply'd with such sum or sums of money, either out of the Company's Treasure, or permit such private persons to do it as may be willing to advance money for Bills of Exchange on the Honourable and Principal Officers and Commissioners of His Brittannick Majesty's Navy, the Commissioners for Victualling His Majesty's Navy, and the Commissioners for taking care of the Sick and Hurt.

"Dated on board His Brittannick Majesty's
Bark the Endeavour, in Batavia Road,
the 16th of October, 1770.


Joseph Banks Journal

I was walking the streets with Tupia a man totaly unknown to me ran out of his house and eagerly acosting me askd if the Indian whoom he saw with me had not been at Batavia before. On my declaring that he had not and asking the reason of so odd a question he told me that a year and a half before Mr De Bougainville had been at Batavia with two French ships, and that with him was an Indian so like this that he had imagind it to be the identical same person had not I informd him to the contrary. On this I enquir'd and found that Mr De Bougainville who was sent out by the French to the Malouine or Fauklands Islands (in order, as they said here, to sell them to the Spanyards) Had gone from thence to the River Plate and afterwards having passd into the South Seas maybee to other Spanish ports, where he and all his people had got an immense deal of Money in new Spanish Dollars, and afterwards came here Across the South seas in which passage he discoverd divers lands unknown before and from one of them brought the Indian in question.

14th and 15th October 1770

[At Batavia]
14th. Early this morning a ship sail'd from hence for Holland by which I had just time to write 2 or 3 lines to Mr. Stephens, Secretary of the Admiralty, to acquaint him of our Arrival, after which I went on shore and waited upon the Shabander, who has the direction of the Town, Port, etc., to get an order to the Superintendent at Onrust to receive us at that Island, but this, I was told, would not be ready before Tuesday next. Received from the Shore Fresh Beef and Greens for the Ship's Company.
15th. Fresh Sea and land breezes and fair weather. I had forgot to mention, that upon our arrival here I had not one man upon the Sick List; Lieut. Hicks, Mr. Green, and Tupia were the only people that had any complaints occasioned by a long continuance at Sea.* (* This was an achievement indeed, and Cook records it in this simple observation. Of the many ships which had arrived at Batavia after voyages across the Pacific, none but had come to an anchor with crews decimated and enfeebled through scurvy. Hawksworth mentions, probably on the authority of Banks, that when passing Torres Straits there were several incipient cases of this disease in the Endeavour. The fresh provisions obtained at Savu probably dissipated these symptoms, if they were symptoms; but Mr. Perry, the surgeon, in his report, given in the Introduction, distinctly states that there were no cases after leaving Tahiti.)
Joseph Banks Journal
Ever since our arrival at this place Dr Solander and myself had apply'd to be introduc'd to the General or Governor on one of his Publick or Council days. We had been put off by various foolish excuses and at last were plainly told that as we could have no business with him we could have no reason to desire that favour. But as we had often press'd the thing this as an excuse did not satisfie us so I went myself to the Shabandar, who is also master of the Ceremonies, in order to ask his reasons for refusing so trifling a request; but was surprizd at being very politely receivd and told that the very next morning he would attend us, which he did and we were introduc'd and had the honour of conversing for a few minutes with his high Mightiness who however was very polite to us. Ever since our first arrival here we had been universaly told of the extreme unwholesomeness of the place which we, they said, should severely feel on account of the freshness and heal[t]hiness of our countenances.
This threat however we did not much regard thinking ourselves too well season'd to variety of Climates to fear any, and trusting more than all to an invariable temperance in every thing, which we had as yet unalterably kept during our whole residence in the warm latitudes so had small reason to doubt our resolutions of keeping for the future. Before the end of this month however we were made sensible of our Mistake. Poor Tupias broken constitution felt it first and he grew worse and worse every day. Then Tayeto his boy was attackd by a cold and i[n]flammation on his lungs; then my Servants Peter and James and myself had Intermitting fevers and Dr Solander a constant nervous one; in short every one on shore and Many on board were ill, cheifly of intermittents, Occasiond no doubt by the lowness of the countrey and the numberless dirty Canals which intersect the town in all directions.

12th and 13th October 1770

[At Batavia]
12th. At 5 o'clock P.M. I was introduced to the Governor-General, who received me very politely and told me that I should have every thing I wanted, and that in the Morning my request should be laid before the Council where I was desir'd to attend. About 9 o'clock in the Evening we had much rain, with some very heavy Claps of Thunder, one of which carried away a Dutch Indiaman's Main Mast by the Deck, and split it, the Maintopmast and Topgallantmast all to shivers. She had had an Iron Spindle at the Maintopgallant Mast head which had first attracted the Lightning. The ship lay about 2 Cable lengths from us, and we were struck with the Thunder at the same time, and in all probability we should have shared the same fate as the Dutchman, had it not been for the Electrical Chain which we had but just before got up; this carried the Lightning or Electrical matter over the side clear of the Ship. The Shock was so great as to shake the whole ship very sencibly. This instance alone is sufficient to recommend these Chains to all Ships whatever, and that of the Dutchman ought to Caution people from having Iron Spindles at their Mast heads.* (* No instance is known of ships fitted with properly constructed lightning conductors having received any damage.)
In the morning I went on shore to the Council Chamber and laid my request before the Governour and Council, who gave me for answer that I should have every thing I wanted.
13th. Received on board a Cask of Arrack and some Greens for the Ship's Company.
Joseph Banks Journal
12th. Being now a little settled I hird a small house next door to the hotel on the Left hand for which I paid 10 Rixd 2£/ a month; here Our books etc. were lodg'd but here we were far from private, Every Duchman almost that came by running in and asking what we had to sell, for it seems that Hardly any individual had ever been at Batavia before who had not something or other to sell. I also hird 2 Carriages which are a kind of open Chaises made to hold two people and drove by a man setting on a Coachbox, for each of these I paid 2 Rxr 8s/ a day by the Month; and now being fairly settled we sent for Tupia ashore to us who had till now remaind on board on account of his Illness which was of the Bilious kind, and for which he had all along refusd to take any medecines.
On his arrival his spirits which had long been very low were instantly raisd by the sights which he saw, and his boy Tayeto who had always been perfectly well was allmost ready to run mad. Houses, Carriages, streets, in short every thing were to him sights which he had often heard describd but never well understood, so he lookd upon them all with more than wonder, almost made with the numberless novelties which diverted his attention from one to the other he danc'd about the streets examining every thing to the best of his abilities.
One of Tupia's first observations was the various dresses which he saw worn by different people; on his being told that in this place every different nation wore their own countrey dress He desird to have his, on which South Sea cloth was sent for on board and he cloathd himself according to his taste. We were now able to get food for him similar to that of his own countrey and he grew visibly better every day, so that I doubted not in the least of his perfect recovery as our stay at this place was not likely to be very short.

11th October 1770

[At Batavia]
The Carpenter now deliver'd me in the defects of the ship, of which the following is a copy:-- "The Defects of His Majesty's Bark Endeavour, Lieutenant James Cook, Commander. "The Ship very leaky (as she makes from 12 to 6 Inches water per hour),occasioned by her Main Kiel being wounded in many places and the Scarfe of her Stem being very open. The false Kiel gone beyond the Midships (from Forward and perhaps further), as I had no opportunity of seeing for the water when hauld ashore for repair. Wounded on her Starboard side under the Main Chains, where I immagine is the greatest leakes (but could not come at it for the water). One pump on the Starboard side useless, the others decayed within 1 1/2 Inch of the bore, otherwise Masts, Yards, Boats, and Hull in pretty good condition.

"Dated in Batavia Road, "this 10th of October, 1770. "J. SATTERLY."

Previous to the above, I had consulted with the Carpenter and all the other Officers concerning the Leake, and they were all unanimously of Opinion that it was not safe to proceed to Europe without first seeing her bottom; accordingly I resolved to apply for leave to heave her down at this place, and, as I understood that this was to be done in writing, I drew up the following request to be presented to the Governor, etc., etc.:-- 

"Lieutenant James Cook, commander of His Brittannick Majesty's Bark Endeavour, Requests of the Right Hon'ble Petrus Albertus Van der Parra, Governor-General, etc., etc., etc., the Indulgence of the following Articles, viz.:

"Firstly, That he may be allow'd a proper and convenient place to heave down and repair His Brittannick Majesty's Ship under his command.

"Secondly, That he may have leave to purchase such few Trifling Naval stores as he may be in want of. 

"Thirdly, That he may be permitted daily to purchase such provisions as he may want; also such an Additional quantity as may enable him to proceed on his passage home to England.

"Dated on board His Brittannick Majesty's Bark Endeavour, in Batavia Road, the 11th October, 1770.


In the morning I went on shore myself and had the foregoing request Translated into Dutch by a Scotch Gentleman, a Merchant here.

Joseph Banks Journal 
We agreed with the keeper of the House whose name was Van Heys the Rates we should pay for living as follows: Each person for Lodging and eating two Rix dollars or 8s pr Diem; for this he agreed as we were five of us who would probably have many visitants from the Ship to keep us a seperate table: for each stranger we were to pay one Rix dollar 4s for dinner, and another for supper and bed if he staid ashore: we were to have also for selves and freinds Tea, Coffee, Punch, and Pipes and tobacco as much as we could destroy, in short every thing the house afforded except wine and beer which we were to pay for at the following rates:

s d Claret 39 
Stivers 3/3
Hock 1
Ryxr 4/ 
Lisbon 39 3/3 
Sweet wine 39 3/3
Madera 1 Rupee 2/6
Beer 1 Rupee 2/6
Spa Water 1 Ryxr 4/-

Besides this we were to pay for our Servants ½ a rupee 1/3 a day each. For these rates, which we soon found to be more than double the common charges of Boarding and lodging in the town, we were furnishd with a Table which under the appearance of Magnificence was wretchedly coverd; indeed Our dinners and suppers consisted of one course each, the one of fifteen the other of thirteen dishes, of which when you came to examine seldom less than 9 or 10 were of Bad Poultrey roasted, boild, fryd, stewd etc.etc. and so little concience had they in serving up dishes over and over again that I have seen the same identical roasted Duck appear upon table 3 times as a roasted duck before he found his way into the fricassee, from whence he was again to Pass into forcemeat. This treatment however was not without remedy: we found that it was the constant custom of the house to supply strangers at their first arrival with every article as bad as possible, which if they through good nature or indolence put up with it was so much the better for the house; if not it was easy to amend their treatment by degrees till they were satisfied. On this discovery we made frequent remonstrances and amended our fare considerably, so much that had we had any one among us who understood this kind of wrangling I am convinc'd we might have liv'd as well as we could have desird.