1st June 1770

[Off Cape Palmerston, Queensland]
At 1/2 an hour After Noon, upon the Boat we had ahead sounding making the Signal for Shoal Water, we hauld our wind to the North-East, having at that time 7 fathoms; the Next cast 5, and then 3, upon which we let go an Anchor, and brought the Ship up. The North-West point of Thirsty Sound, or Pier Head, bore South-East, distance 6 Leagues, being Midway between the Islands which lies off the East point of the Western inlet and 3 Small Islands directly without them,* (* The shoal is now known as Lake Shoal. The three Islands are the Bedwell Islands.) it being now the first of the flood which we found to set North-West by West 1/2 West. After having sounded about the Shoal, on which we found not quite 3 fathoms, but without it deep water, we got under Sail, and hauld round the 3 Islands just mentioned, and came to an Anchor under the Lee of them in 15 fathoms, having at this time dark, hazey, rainy weather, which continued until 7 o'Clock a.m., at which time we got again under sail, and stood to the North-West with a fresh breeze at South-South-East and fair weather, having the Main land in Sight and a Number of Islands all round us, some of which lay out at Sea as far as we could See. The Western Inlet before mentioned, known in the Chart by the Name of Broad Sound, we had now all open. It is at least 9 or 10 Leagues wide at the Entrance, with several Islands laying in and before, and I believe Shoals also, for we had very irregular Soundings, from 10 to 5 and 4 fathoms. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 21 degrees 29 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Townshend 59 degrees West. A point of Land, which forms the North-West Entrance into Broad Sound, bore from us at this Time West, distance 3 Leagues; this Cape I have named Cape Palmerston* (* Henry Viscount Palmerston was a Lord of the Admiralty, 1766 to 1778.) (Latitude 21 degrees 27 minutes South, Longitude 210 degrees 57 minutes West). Between this Cape and Cape Townshend lies the Bay of Inlets, so named from the Number of Inlets, Creeks, etc., in it.* (* The name Bay of Inlets has disappeared from the charts. Cook applied it to the whole mass of bays in this locality, covering over 60 miles. A look at a modern chart causes amazement that Cook managed to keep his ship off the ground, as the whole sea in his track is strewed with dangers.)

Joseph Banks Journal
In the night it raind and at times blew strong not much to our satisfaction who were in a situation not very desirable, as if our anchor should come home or cable break we had nothing to expect but going ashore on some one or other of the shoals which lay round us. The night passd however without the least accident, and at day light in the morn the anchor was got up and we proceeded, in hopes of getting out of our Archipelago. By noon we got in with the main land, which made hilly and barren; on it were some smoaks. In the Evening the weather settled fine and we saild along shore; at night came to an Anchor.

Tupia complaind this evening of swelld Gums; he had it seems had his mouth sore for near a fortnight, but not knowing what cause it proceeded from did not complain. The Surgeon immediately put him upon taking extract of Lemons in all his drink.

31st May 1770

[At Anchor, Thirsty Sound]
Winds Southerly and South-East; Dark, Hazey weather, with rain. In the P.M., finding no one inducement to stay longer in this place, we at 6 a.m. Weighed and put to Sea, and stood to the North-West, having the Advantage of a fresh breeze at South-South-East. We keept without the Group of Islands which lay in Shore, and to the North-West of Thirsty Sound, as there appear'd to be no safe passage between them and the Main; at the same time we had a number of Islands without us extending out to Sea as far as we could see; as we run in this direction our depth of Water was 10, 8 and 9 fathoms.* (* The ship passed between the Duke Islands and the maze of reefs and islands lying North-West of Thirsty Sound.) At Noon the North-West point of Thirsty Sound, which I have named Pier head, bore South 36 degrees East, distant 5 Leagues; the East point of the other inlet, which Communicates with the former, as I have before mentioned, bore South by West, distance 2 1/2 Leagues, the Group of Islands above mentioned laying between us and the point. The farthest part of the Main in sight, on the other side of the inlet, bore North-West; our Latitude by Observation was 21 degrees 53 minutes South.

Joseph Banks Journal
Went out this morn, the weather misty and rainy and fresh breeze. As we had found by experience that many sands and shoals lay off the coast a boat was sent ahead; at noon she made a signal for shoal water on which we came to an anchor; the boats sounded and found a Passage on which we proceeded and at night came to an anchor under the shelter of an Island in the midst of Innumerable Islands, rocks and shoals.

30th May 1770

[At Anchor, Thirsty Sound]
In the P.M. I went again in search of Fresh Water, but had no better success than before; wherefore I gave over all thoughts of laying the Ship a Shore, being resolved to spend as little time as possible in a place that was likely to afford us no sort of refreshment. But as I had observed from the Hills the inlet to run a good way in, I thought this a good time to penetrate into the Country to see a little of the inland parts. Accordingly I prepared for making that Excursion in the morning, but the first thing I did was to get upon a pretty high Hill, which is at the North-West entrance of the inlet, before Sunrise, in order to take a view of the Sea Coast and Islands, etc., that lay off it, and to take their bearings, having the Azimuth Compass with me for that purpose, the Needle of which differ'd from its True position something very considerable, even above 30 degrees, in some places more, and in other less, for I try'd it in several places. I found it differ in itself above 2 points in the space of about 14 feet. The loose stones which lay upon the Ground had no effect upon the Needle; I therefore concluded that it must be owing to Iron Ore upon the Hill, visible signs of which appeared not only here, but in several other places.

As soon as I had done here I proceeded up the inlet. I set out with the first of the flood, and long before high water got about 8 Leagues up it; its breadth thus far was from 2 to 4 or 5 Miles upon a South-West by South direction; but here it spread every way, and formed a Large lake, which communicated with the Sea to the North-West. I not only saw the Sea in this direction, but found the tide of flood coming strong in from the North-West. I likewise observ'd an Arm of this Lake extending to the Eastward, and it is not at all improbable but what it Communicates with the Sea in the bottom of the bay, which lies to the Westward of Cape Townshend.* (* This is exactly what it does.) On the South side of the Lake is a ridge of pretty high hills, which I was desirous of going upon; but as the day was far spent and high water, I was afraid of being bewilder'd among the Shoals in the night, which promised to be none of the best, being already rainy, dirty weather, and therefore I made the best of my way to the Ship.

In this little Excursion I saw only 2 people, and those at a distance, and are all that we have seen in this place, but we have met with several fire places, and seen smokes at a distance. This inlet, which I have named Thirsty Sound, by reason we could find no fresh Water, lies in the Latitude of 22 degrees 05 minutes South, and Longitude 210 degrees 24 West; it may be known by a Group of small Islands Laying under the shore from 2 to 5 Leagues North-West from it.* (* Barren Islands.) There is likewise another Group of Islands laying right before it between 3 and 4 Leagues out at Sea.* (* Duke Islands.) Over each of the Points that form the Entrance is a pretty high, round Hill; that on the North-West is a Peninsula, surrounded by the Sea at high water; the distance from the one to the other is about 2 Miles bold to both Shores. Here is good Anchoring in 7, 6, 5, and 4 fathoms water, and very Convenient places for laying a Ship ashore, where at Spring Tides the tides doth not rise less than 16 or 18 feet, and flows at full and Change of the Moon about 11 o'Clock. We met with no fresh water, or any other kind of refreshments whatever; we saw 2 Turtle, but caught none, nor no sort of Fish or wild fowl, except a few small land birds. Here are the same sort of Water Fowl as we saw in Botany Bay, and like them, so shy that it is hardly possible to get within shott of them.

No signs of Fertility is to be seen upon the Land; the Soil of the up lands is mostly a hard, redish Clay, and produceth several sorts of Trees, such as we have seen before, and some others, and clear of all underwoods. All the low lands are mostly overrun with Mangroves, and at Spring tides overflow'd by the Sea; and I believe in the rainy Seasons here are large land floods, as we saw in many places Gullies, which seem'd to have been made by torrents of Water coming from the Adjacent hills, besides other Visible signs of the Water having been a Considerable height above the Common Spring Tides. Dr. Solander and I was upon a rising Ground up the inlet, which we thought had at one time or another been overflow'd by the Sea, and if so great part of the Country must at that time been laid under Water. Up in the lakes, or lagoons, I suppose, are shell fish, on which the few Natives subsist. We found Oysters sticking to most of the Rocks upon the Shore, which were so small, as not to be worth the picking off.* (* Cook was very unfortunate in his landing here. The channel is at the end of a long headland between two bays, Shoalwater Bay and Broad Sound, and was a very unlikely place either to find water or get any true idea of the country.)

Joseph Banks Journal
Went again ashore in the same place as yesterday. In attempting to penetrate farther into the countrey it was necessary to pass a swamp coverd with mangrove trees; this we attempted chearfully tho the mud under them was midleg deep, yet before we had got half way over we heartily [repented of] our undertaking: so entangled were the archd branches of those trees that we were continualy stooping and often slipping off from their slimey roots on which we steppd; we resolvd however not to retreat and in about an hour accomplishd our walk of about ¼ of a mile. Beyond this we found a place where had been 4 small fires; near them were fish bones, shells etc. that had there been roasted, and grass layd together upon which 4 or 5 people had slept as I guessd about a fortnight before. Several of our people were ashore on liberty, one of these saw a small pool of standing water which he judgd to contain about a ton. Our second lieutenant saw also a little laying in the bottom of a gully near which were the tracks of a large animal of the Deer or Guanicoe kind; he who has been in Port Desire on the Coast of South America seemd to incline to think them like the latter. Some Bustards were also seen but none of them shot; Great Plenty however of the Beautifull Loriquets seen in the last but one anchoring place were seen and killd.

The 2nd Lieutenant and one more man who were in very different places Declard that they heard the voices of Indians near them, but neither saw the People. The countrey in general appeard barren and very sandy; most of the trees were gum trees but they seemd not inclind to Yeild their gum, I saw only one tree which did. It was most destitute of fresh water, probably that was the reason why so few inhabitants were seen: it seemd to be subject to a severe rainy season, so at least we judgd by the deep gullys which we saw had been plainly washd down from hills of a small hight. Whether the sea was more fruitfull than the land We had not an opportunity to try. It did not seem to promise much as we with our hooks and lines could catch nothing, nor were there any quantity of Oysters upon the shore. The tide rose very much, how high was not measurd, but I think I may venture to guess not less at spring tides than 18 or twenty feet, perhaps much more.

The Captn and Dr Solander went today to examine the bottom of the inlet which appeard to go very far inland; they found it to increase in its width the farther they went into it, and concluded from that and some other circumstances that it was a channel which went through to the sea again. They saw two men who followd the boat along shore a good way but the tide running briskly in their favour they did not chuse to stop for them; at a distance from them far up the inlet they saw a large smoak. At night they returnd and having found neither fresh water nor any other refreshment it was resolvd to leave this place tomorrow morn.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
... we left this bay, not being able to find any fresh water, or any kind of provisions, not even fish. The bay is open to the north; is very large and deep, and capable of containing a navy at anchor. There were many creeks, that seemed to end in a lagoon; but the captain could not determine whether the inlet, that led into the country, was a river. The country about the bay is but indifferently cloathed; the trees are small; and the soil on the hills is very stony, and bare of grass under the trees. That part of the shore, which I saw, seemed to be a rock, composed of broken stones, cemented together with mud.

On our first view of this coast, we conceived the most pleasing hopes, but were unhappily disappointed. We saw only two of the Indians, but the marks of many more, and the footsteps of an animal that had a cloven hoof. We saw also many of the Yam-trees, the greater part of them having been stripped of the bark; and several sorts of ants, some of which build their nests of earth against the side of a tree, while others make them of leaves, glued together and hung upon the branches.

From a hill, at the entrance into the bay, we had thirty islands in view. Through this labyrinth of islands we passed with some difficulty, on account of the number of shoals which we met with; one of which we should have been upon, had not the men in the boat given us timely notice. We were encouraged to at-tempt a passage through them, from an expectation, we had formed, of finding one to the north side of the land.

29th May 1770

[Off Cape Townshend, Queensland]
Fresh gales between the South-South-East and East-South-East, Hazey weather, with some showers of rain. In the P.M., having sounded about the Ship, and found that their was Sufficient Water for her over the Shoal, we at 3 o'clock weigh'd and made Sail, and stood to the Westward as the Land lay, having first sent a boat ahead to sound. At 6 we Anchor'd in 10 fathoms, Sandy bottom, about 2 Miles from the Main Land, the Westermost part of which bore West-North-West, having still a Number of Islands in sight a long way without us. At 5 a.m. I sent away the Master with 2 Boats to sound the Entrance of an inlet, which bore from us West, distance about 1 League, into which I intended to go with the Ship to wait a few days, until the Moon increased, and in the meantime to examine the Country. By such time as we had got the Ship under Sail the Boats made the Signal for Anchorage, upon which we stood in with the Ship, and Anchor'd in 5 fathoms, about a League within the Entrance of the inlet, which we judged to be a River running a Good way inland, as I observed the Tides to flow and Ebb something considerable.* (* It is in reality a narrow channel which runs into Broad Sound.) I had some thoughts of laying the Ship a Shore to Clean her bottom. With this view both the Master and I went to look for a Convenient place for that purpose, and at the same time to look for fresh Water, not one drop of which we could find, but met with several places where a Ship might be laid ashore with safety.

Joseph Banks Journal
Early this morn we got up our anchor and stood in for an opening in which by nine O'Clock we came to an anchor. We saw in coming in no signs of People. After breakfast we went ashore and found several Plants which we had not before seen; among them were however still more East Indian plants than in the last harbour. One kind of Grass which we had also seen there was very troublesome to us: its sharp seeds were bearded backwards and whenever they stuck into our cloths were by these beards pushd forward till they got into the flesh: this grass was so plentifull that it was hardly possible to avoid it and with the Musketos that were likewise innumerable made walking almost intolerable. We were not however to be repulsd but proceeded into the countrey. The gum trees were like those in the last bay both in leaf and producing a very small proportion of Gum; on the branches of them and other trees were large ants nests made of Clay as big as a bushel, but not so smooth: the ants also were small and had whitish abdomens. In another species of tree Xanthoxiloides mite, a small sort of black ants had bord all the twigs and livd in quantities in the hollow part where the pith should be, the tree nevertheless flourishing, bearing leaves and flowers upon those very branches as freely and well as upon others that were sound. Insects in general were plentifull, Butterflies especialy: of one sort of these much like P. Similis Linn. the air was for the space of 3 or 4 acres crowded with them to a wonderfull degree: the eye could not be turnd in any direction without seeing milions and yet every branch and twig was almost coverd with those that sat still: of these we took as many as we chose, knocking them down with our caps or any thing that came to hand.

On the leaves of the gum tree we found a Pupa or Chrysalis which shone almost all over as bright as if it had been silverd over with the most burnishd silver and perfectly resembled silver; it was brought on board and the next day came out into a butterfly of a velvet black changeable to blue, his wings both upper and under markd near the edges with many light brimstone colourd spots, those of his under wings being indented deeply at each end. We saw no fresh water but several swamps of salt overgrown with mangroves; in these we found some species of shells, Among them the Trochus perspectivus Linn. Here was also a very singular Phaenomenon in a small fish of which there were great abundance. It was about the size of a minnow in England and had two breast finns very strong. We often found him in places quite dry where may be he had been left by the tide: upon seeing us he immediately fled from us leaping as nimbly as a frog by the help of his breast finns: nor did he seem to prefer water to land for if seen in the water he often leapd out and proceeded upon dry land, and where the water was filld with small stones standing above its surface would leap from stone to stone rather than go into the water: in this manner I observd several pass over puddles of water and proceed on the other side leaping as before. In the afternoon we went ashore on the opposite side of the bay: the productions were much like those on the side we were on in the morn, but if any thing the Soil was rather better. In neither morning nor evening were there any traces of inhabitants ever having been where we were, except that here and there trees had been burnt down.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
On the 29th, in the morning, we passed into the bay, which appears to be the entrance into some river, by the strong tide that runs into the channel, which fell twelve feet in six hours. The captain intended to ground the ship here, in order to clean her bottom...

28th May 1770

[Off Cape Townshend, Queensland]
Winds at South-South-East, a fresh breeze. At 3 o'Clock in the P.M. we passed Cape Manifold, from which the Land Trends North-North-West. The land of this Cape is tolerable high, and riseth in hills directly from the Sea; it may be known by 3 Islands laying off it, one near the Shore, and the other 2 Eight Miles out at Sea; the one of these is low and flat, and the other high and round.* (* Peak and Flat Islands.) At 6 o'Clock we shortned sail and brought too; the Northermost part of the Main we had in sight bore North-West, and some Islands lying off it bore North 31 degrees West; our soundings since Noon were from 20 to 25 fathoms, and in the Night 30 and 34 fathoms.

At day light we made Sail, Cape Manifold bearing South by East, distance 8 Leagues, and the Islands set last night in the same directions, distance from us 4 Miles. The farthest point of the Main bore North 67 degrees West, distant 22 Miles; but we could see several Islands to the Northward of this direction.* (* The easternmost of the Northumberland Islands.) At 9 o'Clock we were abreast of the above point, which I named Cape Townshend* (* Charles Townshend was Chancellor of the Exchequer 1767.) (Latitude 22 degrees 13 minutes, Longitude 209 degrees 48 minutes West); the land of this Cape is of a moderate and pretty even height, and is more barren than woody. Several Islands lay to the Northward of it, 4 or 5 Leagues out at Sea. 3 or 4 Leagues to the South-East the Shore forms a bay,* (* Shoalwater Bay, a large inlet.) in the bottom of which there appeared to be an inlet or Harbour to the Westward of the Coast, and Trends South-West 1/2 South; and these form a very large Bay, which turns away to the Eastward, and probably communicates with the Inlet above mentioned, and by that Means makes the land of the Cape an Island. As soon as we got round the Cape we hauld our wind to the Westward in order to get within the Islands which lay scatter'd up and down in this bay in great number, and extend out to Sea as far as we could see from the Masthead; how much farther will hardly be in my power to determine; they are as Various in their height and Circuit as they are numerous.* (* The Northumberland islands, a very extensive group.)

We had not stood long upon a Wind before we meet with Shoal Water, and was obliged to Tack about to avoid it; after which I sent a boat ahead, and we bore away West by North, leaving many small Islands, Rocks, and Shoals between us and the Main, and a number of Large Islands without us; soundings from 14 to 17 fathoms, Sandy Bottom. A little before noon the boat made the Signal for meeting with Shoal Water, upon which we hauld close upon a Wind to the Eastward, but suddenly fell into 3 1/4 fathoms water, upon which we immediately let go an Anchor, and brought the Ship up with all sails standing, and had then 4 fathoms Coarse sandy bottom. We found here a strong Tide setting to the North-West by West 1/2 West, at the rate of between 2 and 3 Miles an Hour, which was what Carried us so quickly upon the Shoal. Our Latitude by Observation was 22 degrees 8 minutes South; Cape Townshend bore East 16 degrees South, distant 13 Miles, and the Westermost part of the Main Land in sight West 3/4 North, having a number of Islands in sight all round us.* (* The ship was on the Donovan Shoal in Broad Sound Channel.)

Joseph Banks Journal
This morn at day break the water appeard much discolourd as if we had Passd by some place where a river ran into the sea; the land itself was high and abounded with hills. Soon after we came round a point into a bay in which were a multitude of Islands. We stood into the middle of them, a boat was sent a head to sound and made a signal for a shoal, on which the ship came too but before the anchor went she had less than 3 fathm water; the boats now sounded all round her and found that she was upon the shoalest part, on which the anchor was got up and we stood on. Weather was hazey; at night anchord.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
On the 28th, resolving to keep the main close aboard, which continued tending away to the west, we got into another cluster of islands; where we were much alarmed, having but three fathoms water, on a sudden, in a ripling tide: we put about, and hoisted out the boats, to seek for deeper water; after which, as it was very gloomy and blew fresh, we kept an easy sail to the west, sounding all the way; and, at night, came to the entrance of a bay. This cluster of islands is very much variegated; some of them are high, others low; some exceedingly broken and mere barren rocks, others well cloathed. Part of the main land is very high, and has extensive flats, covered with trees. Latitude 22° 8’.

27th May 1770

[Off Cape Capricorn, Queensland]
We had not stood on to the Northward quite an hour before we fell into 3 fathoms, upon which I anchor'd, and Sent away the Master with 2 Boats to sound the Channell, which lay to Leeward of us between the Northermost Island and the Main Land, which appear'd to me to be pretty broad; but I suspected that it was Shoal, and so it was found, for the Master reported to me upon his return that he found in many places only 2 1/2 fathoms, and where we lay at Anchor we had only 16 feet, which was not 2 feet more than the Ship drew.* (* This was between Great Keppel Island and the Main. There is a mass of shoals here.) In the Evening the wind veer'd to East-North-East, which gave us an opportunity to stretch 3 or 4 miles back the way we Came before the Wind Shifted to South, and obliged us again to Anchor in 6 fathoms. At 5 o'Clock in the A.M. I sent away the Master with 2 Boats to search for a Passage out between the Islands, while the Ship got under sail. As soon as it was light the Signal was made by the boats of their having found a Passage, upon which we hoisted in the Boats, and made sail to the Northward as the land lay; soundings from 9 to 15 fathoms, having still Some small Islands without us.* (* The ship passed out between Great Keppel Island and North Keppel Island.) At noon we were about 2 Leagues from the Main Land, and by observation in the Latitude of 22 degrees 53 minutes South, Longitude made from Cape Capricorn 0 degrees 20 minutes West. At this time the Northermost point of Land we had in sight bore North-North-West, distance 10 Miles; this point I named Cape Manyfold, from the Number of high Hills over it; Latitude 22 degrees 43 minutes South; it lies North 20 degrees West, distant 17 Leagues from Cape Capricorn. Between them the shore forms a large Bay, which I call'd Keppel Bay, and the Islands which lay in and Off it are known by the same name; in this Bay is good Anchorage, where there is a sufficient depth of Water; what refreshment it may afford for Shipping I know not.* (* As before mentioned, the Fitzroy River falls into Keppel Bay, and forms a good harbour, though much encumbered with sand banks.) We caught no fish here, notwithstanding we were at Anchor; it can hardly be doubted but what it afforded fresh Water in several places, as both Mainland and Islands are inhabited. We saw smokes by day and fires in the night upon the Main, and people upon one of the Islands.

Joseph Banks Journal
The boats who sounded yesterday having brought back word that there was no passage ahead of the Ship we were obligd to return, which we did and soon fell in with the main land again which was barren to appearance; on it were some smoaks. We passd by many Islands. In the Eve the breeze was stronger than usual with Cloudy weather.

26th May 1770

[Off Cape Capricorn, Queensland]
In the P.M. light breezes at East-South-East, with which we stood to the North-West until 4 o'Clock, when it fell calm, and soon after we Anchored in 12 fathoms. Cape Capricorn bearing South 54 degrees East, distant 4 Leagues, having the Main land and Islands in a manner all around us. In the night we found the tide to rise and fall near 7 feet, and the flood to set to the Westward and Ebb to the Eastward; which is quite the reverse to what we found it when at Anchor to the Eastward of Bustard Bay. At 6 a.m. we weigh'd with the Wind at South, a Gentle breeze, and stood away to the North-West, between the Outermost range of Islands* (* The Keppel Islands - above.) and the Main land, leaving several small Islands between us and the Latter, which we passed Close by. Our soundings was a little irregular, from 12 to 4 fathoms, which caused me to send a Boat ahead to sound. At noon we were about 3 Miles from the Main, about the same distance from the Islands without us; our Latitude by Observation was 23 degrees 7 minutes South, and Longitude made from Cape Capricorn 18 Miles West. The Main land in this Latitude is tolerable high and Mountainious; and the Islands which lay off it are the most of them pretty high and of a Small Circuit, and have more the appearance of barrenness than fertility. We saw smookes a good way in land, which makes me think there must be a River, Lagoon, or Inlet, into the Country, and we passed 2 places that had the Appearance of such this morning; but our Depth of Water at that Time was too little to haul in for them, where I might expect to meet with less.

Joseph Banks Journal
Standing into a channel with land on both sides of us and water very shoal, many rocky Islets, the main land very rocky and barren; at 1 the Water became so shallow that we came to an anchor. While the ships boats were employd in sounding round about her myself in my small boat went a shooting and killd several bobies and a kind of white bird calld by the seamen Egg bird, Sterna....... Before I went out we tried in the cabbin to fish with hook and line but the water was too shoal (3 fhm) for any fish. This want was however in some degree [supplied] by Crabs of which vast numbers were on the ground who readily took our baits, and sometimes held them so fast with their claws that they sufferd themselves to be hawld into the ship. They were of 2 sorts, Cancer pelagicus Linn. and another much like the former but not so beautifull. The first was ornamented with the finest ultramarine blew conceivable with which all his claws and every Joint was deeply tingd; the under part of him was a lovely white, shining as if glazd and perfectly resembling the white of old China; the other had a little of the ultramarine on his Joints and toes and on his back 3 very remarkable brown spots. 2 fires were seen upon an Island, and those who went to sound in the boats saw people upon an Island also who calld to them and seemd very desirous that they should land.--In examining a fig which we had found at our last going ashore we found in the fruit of it a Cynips, very like if not exactly the same species with the Cynips sycomori Linn. describd by Haselquist in his Iter Palestinum; a strong proof of the fact that figgs must be impregnated by means of insects, tho indeed that fact wanted not any additional proofs.

Sydney Parkinson's Journal
On the 26th, we got in among a parcel of islands, to get clear of which we proposed going by a passage to the north-west, which was next to the main; but, finding our water shoal very much, we sent some men in a boat a-head of us, to found, and came into three and two and a half fathom water. They returned with an account that there was hardly water enough; so we tacked about and stood out. The next morning, we had a fine breeze, and went through a passage to the north-east, between two islands: in this found, the tide fell thirteen feet. Our people, who went off in the boat, saw many of the natives upon one of the islands, and they hallooed to them: they were of the same sort as those we had seen before. On the land round about, we saw both high and low ridges, with some peaks: part of it was well covered; though there appeared some large patches of white sand. Latitude 22° 52’.

25th May 1770

[Off Cape Capricorn, Queensland]
In the P.M. had it calm until 5, when a light breeze sprung up at South-East, and we steer'd North-West as the land lay until 10, then brought too, having had all along 14 and 15 fathoms. At 5 A.M. we made sail; at daylight the Northermost point of the Main bore North 70 degrees West, and soon after we saw more land making like Islands, bearing North-West by North; at 9 we were abreast of the point, distant from it 1 mile; Depth of Water 14 fathoms. I found this point to lay directly under the Tropic of Capricorn, and for that reason call it by that Name. Longitude 209 degrees 0 minutes West. It is of a Moderate height, and looks white and barren, and may be known by some Islands which lie to the North-West of it, and some small Rocks one League South-East from it; on the West side of the Cape there appeared to be a Lagoon. On the 2 Spits which form the Entrance were a great Number of Pelicans; at least, so I call them. The most northermost land we could see bore from Cape Capricorn North 24 degrees West, and appeared to be an Island;* (* Hummocky Island.) but the Main land Trended West by North 1/2 North, which Course we steer'd, having from 15 to 16 fathoms and from 6 to 9, a hard sandy bottom. At Noon our Latitude by Observation was 23 degrees 24 minutes South; Cape Capricorn bore South 60 degrees East, distance 2 Leagues; a small Island North by East 2 Miles. In this Situation had 9 fathoms at the distance of 4 Miles from the Main land, which is here low and Sandy next the Sea, except the points which are moderately high and rocky; in land the Country is hilly, and affords but a very indifferent prospect.*

(* Between Bustard Bay and Cape Capricorn is Port Curtis, in which stands the small town of Gladstone. Cape Capricorn is the eastern point of Curtis Island, and to the northward is Keppel Bay, into which falls the Fitzroy River. Up the latter, 35 miles from the sea, is Rockhampton, the second largest town of Queensland. All this coast is encumbered with shoals, outside of which Cook had so far prudently kept. To seaward begins the long chain of islands and reefs known as the Great Australian Barrier, which stretches up to Torres Straits. Cook was unaware of their existence, as they were out of sight, but he became painfully acquainted with them later, where the reefs approach the land, and make navigation along the coast anxious work; but he here began to get into difficulties with the shoals which stretch off the coast itself.)

Joseph Banks Journal
Land in the morn rocky, varied here and there with reddish sand, but little wood was to be seen. In the evening it was calm, some few fish were caught. At night perceiving the tide to run very strong we anchord. No fires were seen the whole day.

We examind the orange juice and brandy which had been sent on board as prepard by Dr Hulmes directions. It had never been movd from the cag in which it came on board. About ½ of it had been usd or leakd out; the remainder was coverd with a whitish mother but otherwise was not at all damagd either to taste or sight when it came out of the cag, but when put into a bottle in 3 or 4 days it became ropey and good for nothing. On this we resolvd to have it evaperated immediately to a strong essence and put up in Bottles immediately.

20th to 24th May 1770

[Off Sandy Cape, Queensland]

20th. Winds Southerly, Gentle breezes. At 10 p.m. we passed, at the distance of 4 Miles, having 17 fathoms, a black bluff head or point of land, on which a number of the Natives were Assembled, which occasioned my naming it Indian Head; Latitude 25 degrees 0 minutes North by West, 4 Miles from this head, is another much like it. From this last the land Trends a little more to the Westward, and is low and Sandy next the Sea, for what may be behind it I know not; if land, it must be all low, for we could see no part of it from the Mast head. We saw people in other places besides the one I have mentioned; some Smokes in the day and fires in the Night. Having but little wind all Night, we keept on to the Northward, having from 17 to 34 fathoms, from 4 Miles to 4 Leagues from the Land, the Northermost part of which bore from us at daylight West-South-West, and seem'd to End in a point, from which we discover'd a Reef stretching out to the Northward as far as we could see, being, at this time, in 18 fathoms; for we had, before it was light, hauld our Wind to the Westward, and this course we continued until we had plainly discover'd breakers a long way upon our Lee Bow, which seem'd to Stretch quite home to the land. We then Edged away North-West and North-North-West, along the East side of the Shoal, from 2 to 1 Miles off, having regular, even Soundings, from 13 to 7 fathoms; fine sandy bottom. At Noon we were, by Observation, in the Latitude of 24 degrees 26 minutes South, which was 13 Miles to the Northward of that given by the Log. The extream point of the Shoal we judged to bear about North-West of us; and the point of land above-mentioned bore South 3/4 West, distant 20 Miles. This point I have named Sandy Cape,* (* Sandy Cape is the northern point of Great Sandy Island. A long narrow channel separates the latter from the mainland, and opens at its northern end into Harvey Bay, a great sheet of water 40 miles across. This channel is now much used by the coasting trade, as it avoids the long detour round Breaksea Spit, a most dangerous shoal.) on account of 2 very large white Patches of Sand upon it. It is of a height Sufficient to be seen 12 Leagues in Clear weather (Latitude 24 degrees 46 minutes, Longitude 206 degrees 51 minutes West); from it the Land trends away West-South-West and South-West as far as we could see. 

21st. In the P.M. we keept along the East side of the Shoal until 2, when, judging there was water for us over, I sent a Boat a Head to sound, and upon her making the Signal for more than 5 fathoms we hauld our wind and stood over the Tail of it in 6 fathoms. At this time we were in the Latitude of 24 degrees 22 minutes South, and Sandy Cape bore South 1/2 East, distant 8 Leagues; but the Direction of the Shoal is nearest North-North-West and South-South-East. At this time we had 6 fathoms; the boat which was not above 1/4 of a mile to the Southward of us had little more than 5 fathoms. From 6 fathoms we had the next Cast, 13, and then 20 immediately, as fast as the Man could heave the Lead; from this I did suppose that the West side of the Shoal is pretty steep too, whereas on the other side we had gradual Soundings from 13 to 7 fathoms. This Shoal I called Break Sea Spit, because now we had smooth water, whereas upon the whole Coast to the Southward of it we had always a high Sea or swell from the South-East. At 6, the Land of Sandy Cape extending from South 17 degrees East to South 27 degrees East, distance 8 Leagues; Depth of Water, 23 fathoms, which depth we keept all Night, as we stood to the Westward with light Airs from the Southward; but between 12 and 4 A.M. we had it Calm, after which a Gentle breeze sprung up at South, with which we still keept on upon a Wind to the Westward. At 7 we Saw from the Masthead the Land of Sandy Cape bearing South-East 1/2 East, distance 12 or 13 Leagues. At 9, we discover'd from the Mast head land to the Westward, and soon after saw smooke upon it. Our depth of Water was now decreased to 17 fathoms, and by Noon to 13, at which time we were by observation in the Latitude of 24 degrees 28 minutes South, and about 7 Leagues from the Land, which extended from South by West to West-North-West. Longitude made from Sandy Cape 0 degrees 45 minutes West. For these few days past we have seen at times a sort of Sea fowl we have no where seen before that I remember; they are of the sort called Boobies. Before this day we seldom saw more than 2 or 3 at a time, and only when we were near the land. Last night a small flock of these birds passed the Ship and went away to the North-West, and this morning from 1/2 an hour before sun rise to half an hour after, flights of them were continually coming from the North-North-West, and flying to the South-South-East, and not one was seen to fly in any other direction. From this we did suppose that there was a Lagoon, River, or Inlet of Shallow Water to the Southward of us, where these birds resorted to in the day to feed, and that not very far to the Northward lay some Island, where they retir'd too in the night.

22nd. In the P.M. had a Gentle breeze at South-East, with which we stood in for the land South-West until 4, when, being in the Latitude of 24 degrees 36 minutes South, and about 2 Leagues from land, in 9 fathoms, we bore away along shore North-West by West; at the same time we could see the land extending to the South-South-East about 8 Leagues. Near the Sea the land is very low, but inland are some moderately high hills, and the whole appeared to be thickly Cloathed with wood. In running along shore we shoalded our Water from 9 to 7 fathoms, and at one time had but 6 fathoms, which determined me to Anchor for the Night, and accordingly at 8 o'Clock we came too in 8 fathoms, fine gravelly bottom, about 5 miles from the land. This evening we saw a Water Snake, and 2 or 3 evenings ago one lay under the Ship's Stern some time; this was about 1 1/2 Yards in length, and was the first we had seen. At 6 A.M. weighed with a Gentle breeze Southerly, and Steer'd North-West 1/4 West, edging in for the land until we got Within 2 Miles of it, having from 7 to 11 fathoms; we then steer'd North-North-West as the land laid. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 24 degrees 19 minutes South; Longitude made from Sandy Cape 1 degree 14 minutes West. [At Anchor. Bustard Bay, Queensland.]

23rd. Continued our Course alongshore at the distance of about 2 Miles off, having from 12 to 9, 8 and 7 fathoms, until 5 o'Clock, at which time we were abreast of the South point of a Large open Bay,* (* Bustard Bay.) wherein I intended to Anchor. Accordingly we hauld in Close upon a Wind, and sent a boat ahead to sound; after making some Trips we Anchored at 8 o'Clock in 5 fathoms, a Sandy bottom. The South point of the bay bore East 3/4 South, distant 2 Miles; the North point North-West 1/4 North, about 2 Miles from the shore, in the bottom of the bay.

Last night, some time in the Middle watch, a very extraordinary affair hapned to Mr. Orton, my Clerk. He having been drinking in the evening, some Malicious person or persons in the Ship took Advantage of his being Drunk, and cut off all the Cloaths from off his back; not being satisfied with this, they some time after went into his Cabin and cut off a part of both his Ears as he lay a Sleep in his Bed. The person whom he suspected to have done this was Mr. Magra, one of the Midshipmen; but this did not appear to me. Upon enquiry, however, as I had been told that Magra had once or twice before this in their drunken Frolicks cut off his cloaths, and had been heard to say (as I was told) that if it was not for the Law he would Murder him, these things consider'd, induced me to think that Magra was not Altogether innocent. I therefore for the present dismiss'd him the Quarter deck, and Suspended him from doing any duty in the Ship, he being one of those Gentlemen frequently found on board King's Ships that can very well be spared; besides, it was necessary in me to show my immediate resentment against the person on whom the suspicion fell, least they should not have stop'd here.

With respect to Mr. Orton, he is a man not without faults; yet from all the inquiry I could make, it evidently appear'd to me that so far from deserving such Treatment, he had not designed injuring any person in the Ship; so that I do--and shall always--look upon him as an injured man. Some reasons, however, might be given why this misfortune came upon him, in which he himself was in some measure to blame; but as this is only conjecture, and would tend to fix it upon some people in the Ship, whom I would fain believe would hardly be guilty of such an Action, I shall say nothing about it, unless I shall hereafter discover the Offenders, which I shall take every method in my power to do, for I look upon such proceedings as highly dangerous in such Voyages as this, and the greatest insult that could be offer'd to my Authority in this Ship, as I have always been ready to hear and redress every complaint that have been made against any Person in the Ship.* (* This history of Mr. Orton's misadventure is omitted from the Admiralty copy. It is an illustration of the times to note that the fact of Orton having got drunk does not seem to call for the Captain's severe censure. In these days, though the practical joker receives punishment, the drunkard would certainly come in for a large share also.)

In the A.M. I went ashore with a party of men in order to Examine the Country, accompanied by Mr. Banks and the other Gentlemen; we landed a little within the South point of the Bay, where there is a Channel leading into a large Lagoon. The first thing that I did was to sound and examine the Channell, in which I found 3 fathoms, until I got about a Mile up it, where I met with a Shoal, whereon was little more than one fathom; being over this I had 3 fathoms again. The Entrance into this Channell lies close to the South point of this Bay, being form'd on the East by the Shore, and on the West by a large Spit of sand; it is about a 1/4 of a Mile broad, and lies in South by West; here is room for a few Ships to lay very secure, and a small Stream of Fresh Water. After this I made a little excursion into the Woods while some hands made 3 or 4 hauls with the Sean, but caught not above a dozen very small fish. By this time the flood was made, and I imbarqued in the Boats in order to row up the Lagoon; but in this I was hindred by meeting everywhere with Shoal Water. As yet we had seen no people, but saw a great deal of Smook up and on the West side of the Lagoon, which was all too far off for us to go by land, excepting one; this we went to and found 10 Small fires in a very small Compass, and some Cockle Shells laying by them, but the people were gone. On the windward or South side of one of the fires was stuck up a little Bark about a foot and a half high, and some few pieces lay about in other places; these we concluded were all the covering they had in the Night, and many of them, I firmly believe, have not this, but, naked as they are, sleep in the open air. Tupia, who was with us, observed that they were Taata Eno's; that is, bad or poor people. The Country is visibly worse than at the last place we were at; the soil is dry and Sandy, and the woods are free from underwoods of every kind; here are of the same sort of Trees as we found in Bottany Harbour, with a few other sorts. One sort, which is by far the most Numerous sort of any in the Woods, grow Something like birch; the Bark at first sight looks like birch bark, but upon examination I found it to be very different, and so I believe is the wood; but this I could not examine, as having no axe or anything with me to cut down a Tree. About the Skirts of the Lagoon grows the true Mangrove, such as are found in the West Indies, and which we have not seen during the Voyage before; here is likewise a sort of a palm Tree, which grows on low, barren, sandy places in the South Sea Islands. All, or most of the same sort, of Land and Water fowl as we saw at Botany Harbour we saw here; besides these we saw some Bustards, such as we have in England, one of which we kill'd that weighed 17 1/2 pounds, which occasioned my giving this place the Name of Bustard Bay (Latitude 24 degrees 4 minutes, Longitude 208 degrees 22 minutes West); we likewise saw some black and white Ducks. Here are plenty of small Oysters sticking to the Rocks, Stones, and Mangrove Trees, and some few other shell fish, such as large Muscles, Pearl Oysters, Cockels, etc. I measured the perpendicular height of the last Tide, and found it to be 8 foot above low water mark, and from the time of low water to-day I found that it must be high Water at the full and Change of the Moon at 8 o'Clock.

24th. In the P.M. I was employ'd ashore in the Transactions before related; at 4 a.m. we weighed with a Gentle breeze at South, and made sail out of the Bay. In standing out our soundings were from 5 to 15 fathoms; when in this last Depth we were abreast of the North Point, and being daylight we discover'd breakers stretching out from it about North-North-East, 2 or 3 miles; at the Outermost point of them is a Rock just above Water. In passing these rocks at the distance of 1/2 a mile we had from 15 to 20 fathoms; being past them, we hauld along shore West-North-West for the farthest land we had in sight. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 23 degrees 52 minutes South; the North part of Bustard Bay bore South 62 degrees East, distance 10 miles, and the Northermost land in sight North 60 degrees West. Longitude in 208 degrees 37 minutes West, distance from the nearest shore 6 Miles; in this situation had 14 fathoms water.

19th May 1770

[Off Moreton Bay, Queensland]
In the P.M. had Variable light Airs, and Calms; in the night had a light breeze from the land, which in the A.M. veer'd to South-West and South-South-West. In the evening found the Variation to be 8 degrees 36 minutes East, and in the Morning 8 degrees 20 minutes; as we had but little wind we keept to the Northward all night, having from 23 to 27 fathoms fine sandy bottom, at the Distance of 2 or 3 Leagues from the Land. At Noon we were about 4 Miles from it, and by observation in the Latitude of 25 degrees 4 minutes, and in this situation had but 13 fathoms; the Northermost land in Sight bore North 21 degrees West, distant 8 Miles; our Course and distance saild since yesterday at Noon was North 13 degrees 15 minutes East, 31 Miles.

Joseph Banks Journal
Countrey as sandy and barren as ever. Two snakes were seen, a man of war bird, and a small Turtle. At sun set the land appeard in a low bank to the sea over which nothing was seen, so that we imagind it was very narrow and that some deep bay on the other side ran behind it.

18th May 1770

[Off Moreton Bay, Queensland]
In steering along shore at the distance of 2 Leagues off our Soundings was from 24 to 32 fathoms Sandy bottom. At 6 P.M. the North point set at Noon bore North 1/4 West; distant 4 Leagues; at 10 it bore North-West by West 1/2 West, and as we had seen no land to the Northward of it we brought too, not knowing which way to steer, having at this time but little wind, and continued so for the most part of the night. At 2 P.M. we made sail with the wind at South-West, and at daylight saw the land extending as far as North 3/4 East. The point set last night bore South-West by West, distant 3 or 4 Leagues; I have named it Double Island Point, on account of its figure (Latitude 25 degrees 58 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 48 minutes West). The land within this point is of a moderate and pretty equal height, but the point itself is of such an unequal Height that it looks like 2 Small Islands laying under the land; it likewise may be known by the white Clifts on the North side of it. Here the land trends to the North-West, and forms a large open bay,* (* Wide Bay.) in the bottom of which the land appear'd to be very low, in so much that we could but just see it from the Deck. In crossing the mouth of this bay our Depth of Water was from 30 to 32 fathoms, a white sandy bottom. At Noon we were about 3 Leagues from the Land, and in the Latitude of 25 degrees 34 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 45 minutes West; Double Island Point bore South 3/4 West, and the Northermost land in sight North 3/4 East. The land hereabouts, which is of a moderate height, appears more barren than any we have yet seen on this Coast, and the Soil more sandy, there being several large places where nothing else is to be seen; in other places the woods look to be low and Shrubby, nor did we see many signs of inhabitants.

Joseph Banks Journal
Land this morn very sandy. We could see through our glasses that the sands which lay in great patches of many acres each were moveable: some of them had been lately movd, for trees which stood up in the middle of them were quite green, others of a longer standing had many stumps sticking out of them which had been trees killd by the sand heaping about their roots. Few fires were seen. Two water snakes swam by the ship; they were in all respects like land snakes and beautifully spotted except that they had broad flat tails which probably serve them instead of fins in swimming. In the evening I went out in the small boat but saw few birds of three sorts, Men of War birds (Pelecanus aquilus) Bobies (Pelicanus Sula) and Nectris munda, of which last shot one, and took up 2 cuttle bones differing from the European ones in nothing but the having a small sharp peg or prickle at one end.

17th May 1770

[Off Moreton Bay, Queensland]
Winds Southerly, mostly a fresh breeze, with which in the P.M. we steer'd along shore North 3/4 East, at the distance of about 2 Leagues off. Between 4 and 5 we discover'd breakers on our Larboard bow; our Depth of Water at this time was 37 fathoms. At sunset the Northermost land in sight bore North by West, the breakers North-West by West, distant 4 Miles, and the Northermost land set at Noon, which form'd a Point, I named Point Lookout, bore West, distant 5 or 6 Miles (Latitude 27 degrees 6 minutes).* (* There is some mistake in this latitude. It should be 27 degrees 26 minutes.) On the North side of this point the shore forms a wide open bay, which I have named Morton's Bay,* (* James, Earl of Morton, was President of the Royal Society in 1764, and one of the Commissioners of Longitude.) in the Bottom of which the land is so low that I could but just see it from the Topmast head. The breakers I have just mentioned lies about 3 or 4 Miles from Point Lookout; at this time we had a great Sea from the Southward, which broke prodigious high upon them.

Stood on North-North-East until 8, when, being past the breakers, and having Deepned our water to 52 fathoms, we brought too until 12 o'Clock, then made sail to the North-North-East. At 4 A.M. we sounded, and had 135 fathoms. At daylight I found that we had in the night got much farther to the Northward and from the Shore than I expected from the Course we steer'd, for we were at least 6 or 7 Leagues off, and therefore hauled in North-West by West, having the Advantage of a Fresh Gale at South-South-West. The Northermost land seen last night bore from us at this time South-South-West, distant 6 Leagues. This land I named Cape Morton, it being the North point of the Bay of the same Name (Latitude 26 degrees 56 minutes South, Longitude 206 degrees 28 minutes). From Cape Morton the Land Trends away West, further than we could see, for there is a small space where we could see no land; some on board where of opinion that there is a River there because the Sea looked paler than usual. Upon sounding we found 34 fathoms fine white sandy bottom, which alone is Sufficient change, the apparent Colour of Sea Water, without the Assistance of Rivers. The land need only to be low here, as it is in a Thousand other places upon the Coast, to have made it impossible for us to have seen it at the distance we were off. Be this as it may, it was a point that could not be clear'd up as we had the wind; but should any one be desirous of doing it that may come after me, this place may always be found by 3 Hills which lay to the Northward of it in the Latitude of 26 degrees 53 minutes South. These hills lay but a little way inland, and not far from Each other; they are very remarkable on account of their Singular form of Elivation, which very much resembles Glass Houses,* (* The Glass houses form a well-known sea mark on entering Moreton Bay, as the name is now written. Brisbane, the capital of Queensland, stands on the river of the same name, which falls into Moreton Bay.) which occasioned my giving them that Name. The Northermost of the 3 is the highest and largest. There are likewise several other peaked hills inland to the Northward of these, but they are not near so remarkable.

At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 26 degrees 28 minutes South, which was 10 Miles to the Northward of the Log; a Circumstance that hath not hapned since we have been upon the Coast before. Our Course and distance run since Yesterday noon was North by West 80 Miles, which brought us into the Longitude of 206 degrees 46 minutes. At this time we were about 2 or 3 Leagues from the land, and in 24 fathoms Water; a low bluff point, which was the Southern point of an open Sandy bay,* (* Laguna Bay. The point is called Low Bluff.) bore North 52 degrees West, distant 3 Leagues, and the Northermost point of land in sight bore North 1/4 East. Several Smokes seen to-day, and some pretty far inland.

Joseph Banks Journal
Continued to blow tho not so fresh as yesterday. Land trended much to the westward; about 10 we were abreast of a large bay the bottom of which was out of sight. The sea in this place suddenly changd from its usual transparency to a dirty clay colour, appearing much as if chargd with freshes, from whence I was led to conclude that the bottom of the bay might open into a large river. About it were many smoaks especialy on the Northern side near some remarkable conical hills. At sun set the land made in one bank over which nothing could be seen; it was very sandy and carried with it no signs of fertility.

16th May 1770

[Off Point Danger, New South Wales]
Winds Southerly, a fresh Gale, with which we steer'd North along shore until sunset, at which time we discover'd breakers ahead, and on our Larboard bow, being at this time in 20 fathoms, and about 5 miles from the land. Haul'd off East until 8, at which time we had run 8 Miles, and had increased our Depth of Water to 44 fathoms. We then brought too with her head to the Eastward, and lay on this Tack until 10 o'Clock, when, having increased our Soundings to 78 fathoms, we wore and lay with her head in shore until 5 o'Clock a.m., when we made Sail. At daylight we were surprized by finding ourselves farther to the Southward than we were in the evening, and yet it had blown strong all night Southerly. We now saw the breakers again within us, which we passed at the distance of about 1 League; they lay in the Latitude of 28 degrees 8 minutes South, and stretch off East 2 Leagues from a point under which is a small Island; their situation may always be found by the peaked mountain before mentioned, which bears South-West by West from them, and on their account I have named it Mount Warning. It lies 7 or 8 Leagues in land in the Latitude of 28 degrees 22 minutes South. The land is high and hilly about it, but it is Conspicuous enough to be distinguished from everything else. The point off which these shoals lay I have named Point Danger;* (* Point Danger is the boundary point on the coast between New South Wales and Queensland.) to the Northward of it the land, which is low, Trends North-West by North; but we soon found that it did not keep that direction long before it turn'd again to the Northward. At Noon we were about 2 Leagues from the land, and by observation in the Latitude of 27 degrees 46 minutes, which was 17 Miles to the Southward of the Log; Longitude 206 degrees 26 minutes West. Mount Warning bore South 20 degrees West, distant 14 Leagues; the Northermost land in sight bore North. Our Course and distance made good since yesterday North 1 degree 45 minutes West, 53 miles.

Joseph Banks Journal
In the morn we were abreast of the hill and saw the breakers which we last night escapd between us and the land. It still blew fresh; at noon we were abreast of some very low land which lookd like an extensive plain in which we supposd there to be a Lagoon, in the neighbourhood of which were many fires.

15th May 1770

[The Solitary Islands, New South Wales]
Fresh Gales at South-West, West-South-West, and South-South-West. In the P.M. had some heavy Squalls, attended with rain and hail, which obliged us to close reef our Topsails. Between 2 and 4 we had some small rocky Islands* (* The Solitary Islands.) between us and the land; the Southermost lies in the Latitude of 30 degrees 10 minutes, the Northermost in 29 degrees 58 minutes, and about 2 Leagues or more from the land; we sounded, and had 33 fathoms about 12 Miles without this last island. At 8 we brought too until 10, at which time we made sail under our Topsails. Having the Advantage of the Moon we steer'd along shore North and North by East, keeping at the distance of about 3 Leagues from the land having from 30 to 25 fathoms. As soon as it was daylight we made all the sail we could, having the Advantage of a fresh Gale and fair weather.* (* During the night the entrance of the Clarence River, now the outlet for the produce of a large and rich agricultural district, was passed, and in the morning that of the Richmond River, which serves a similar purpose.) At 9, being about a League from the Land, we saw upon it people and Smoke in Several places. At noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 28 degrees 39 minutes South, and Longitude 206 degrees 27 minutes West; Course and distance saild since Yesterday at Noon North 6 degrees 45 minutes East, 104 Miles. A Tolerable high point of land bore North-West by West, distant 3 Miles; this point I named Cape Byron* (* Captain John Byron was one of Cook's predecessors in exploration in the Pacific, having sailed round the World in H.M.S. Dolphin, in company with the Tamar, in 1764 to 1766.) (Latitude 28 degrees 37 minutes 30 seconds South, Longitude 206 degrees 30 minutes West). It may be known by a remarkable sharp peaked Mountain lying in land North-West by West from it. From this point the land Trends North 13 degrees West. Inland it is pretty high and hilly, but near the Shore it is low; to the Southward of the Point the land is low, and Tolerable level.

Joseph Banks Journal
Wind continued fair, a brisk breeze. The land in the Morning was high but before noon it became lower and was in general well wooded. Some people were seen, about 20, each of which carried upon his back a large bundle of something which we conjecturd to be palm leaves for covering their houses; we observd them with glasses for near an hour during which time they walkd upon the beach and then up a path over a gently sloping hill, behind which we lost sight of them. Not one was once observd to stop and look towards the ship; they pursued their way in all appearance intirely unmovd by the neighbourhood of so remarkable an object as a ship must necessarily be to people who have never seen one. The Thermometer was at 60 which rather pinchd us. In the evening two small turtle were seen. At sun set a remarkable peakd hill was in sight 5 or 6 Leagues of in the countrey, which about it was well wooded and lookd beautifull as well as fertile. We were fortunate enough just at this time to descry breakers ahead laying in the very direction in which the ship saild; on this we went upon a wind and after making a sufficient offing brought too, but it blowing rather fresh and a great sea running made the night rather uncomfortable.

14th May 1770

[Off Cape Hawke, New South Wales]
At the P.M. it fell Calm, and continued so about an hour, when a breeze sprung up at North-East, with which we stood in shore until 6 o'Clock, when, being in 30 fathoms and 3 or 4 Miles from the land, we Tack'd, having the wind at North-North-West. At this time Smoky Cape bore South 3/4 degrees West, distant about 5 Leagues, and the Northermost land in sight North 1/4 degrees East. At 8 we made a Trip in shore for an hour; after this the wind came off Shore, with which we stood along shore to the Northward, having from 30 to 21 fathoms, at the distance of 4 or 5 Miles from the Land. At 5 A.M. the Wind veer'd to North, and blow'd a fresh breeze, attended with Squalls and dark cloudy weather. At 8 it began to Thunder and Rain, which lasted about an Hour, and then fell Calm, which gave us an opportunity to sound, and found 86 fathoms, being about 4 or 5 Leagues from the Land; after this we got the wind Southerly, a fresh breeze and fair weather, and we Steer'd North by West for the Northermost land we had in sight. At noon we were about 4 Leagues from the land, and by observation in the Latitude of 30 degrees 22 minutes South, which was 9 Miles to the Southward of that given by the Log. Longitude in 206 degrees 39 minutes West, and Course and distance made good since Yesterday Noon North 16 degrees East, 22 miles; some Tolerable high land near the Shore bore West. As I have not mentioned the Aspect of the Country since we left Botany Bay, I shall now describe it as it hath at different times appear'd to us. As we have advanced to the Northward the land hath increased in height, in so much that in this Latitude it may be called a hilly Country; but between this and Botany Bay it is diversified with an agreeable variety of Hills, Ridges, and Valleys, and large plains all Cloathed with wood, which to all appearance is the same as I have before mentioned, as we could discover no Visible alteration in the Soil. Near the shore the land is in general low and Sandy, except the points which are rocky, and over many of them are pretty high hills, which at first rising out of the Water appear like a Island.

Joseph Banks Journal
For these three nights last much lightning has been seen to the Eastward. Early in the morn it was calm and some few fish were caught; after the weather became squally. The wind however after some time settled at South, the briskest breeze I think that the Endeavour has gone before during the voyage. In the afternoon the land was rather more hilly than it has been. Several fires were seen and one high up on a hill side 6 or 7 miles at least from the beach.

12th - 13th May 1770

[Off Cape Hawke, New South Wales]
12th. Winds Southerly, a Gentle breeze in the P.M. As we run along Shore we saw several smokes a little way in land from the Sea, and one upon the Top of a hill, which was the first we have seen upon elevated ground since we have been upon the Coast. At sunset we were in 23 fathoms, and about a League and a half from the land, the Northermost part of which we had in sight bore North 13 degrees East; and 3 remarkable large high hills lying Contigious to each other, and not far from the shore, bore North-North-West. As these Hills bore some resemblance to each other we called them the 3 Brothers. We steer'd North-East by North all Night, having from 27 to 67 fathoms, from 2 to 5 and 6 Leagues from the Land, and at day light we steer'd North for the Northermost land we had in sight. At noon we were 4 Leagues from the Land, and by observation in the Latitude of 31 degrees 18 minutes South, which was 15 miles to the Southward of that given by the Log. Our Course and distance made good since Yesterday noon was North 24 degrees East, 48 miles. Longitude 206 degrees 58 minutes West; several smokes seen a little way in land.

13th. In the P.M. stood in shore with the Wind at North-East until 6, at which time we Tack'd, being about 3 or 4 miles from the land, and in 24 fathoms. Stood off shore with a fresh breeze at North and North-North-West until midnight, then Tack'd, being in 118 fathoms and 8 Leagues from the Land. At 3 a.m. the wind veer'd to the Westward, and we Tack'd and stood to the Northward. At noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 30 degrees 43 minutes South, and Longitude 206 degrees 45 minutes West, and about 3 or 4 Leagues from the Land, the Northermost part of which bore from us North 13 degrees West; and a point or head land, on which were fires that Caused a great Quantity of smoke, which occasioned my giving it the name of Smokey Cape, bore South-West, distant 4 Leagues; it is moderately high land. Over the pitch of the point is a round hillock; within it 2 others, much higher and larger, and within them very low land (Latitude 30 degrees 51 minutes, Longitude 206 degrees 5 minutes West). Besides the smoke seen upon this Cape we saw more in several places along the Coast. The observed Latitude was only 5 Miles to the Southward of the Log.

10th - 11th May 1770

[Off Cape Hawke, New South Wales]
10th.  In the P.M., had the wind at North-East by North, with which we stood in Shore until near 4 o'Clock, when we Tack'd in 23 fathoms Water, being about a Mile from the land, and as much to the Southward of Cape 3 Points. In the night the wind veer'd to North-West and West, and in the morning to South-West. Having the advantage of a light Moon, we made the best of our way along shore to the Northward. At Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 32 degrees 53 minutes South, and Longitude 208 degrees 0 minutes West, and about 2 Leagues from the land, which extended from North 41 degrees East to South 41 degrees West. A small round rock or Island,* (* Nobby Head, at the entrance of Newcastle Harbour, formed by the Hunter River. Newcastle is the great coal port of New South Wales. It has a population of 20,000, and exports 1,500,000 tons of coal in the year.) laying close under the land, bore South 82 degrees West, distance 3 or 4 Leagues. At sunrise in the Morning found the Variation to be 8 degrees East. In the Latitude of 33 degrees 2 minutes South, a little way inland, is a remarkable hill, that is shaped like the Crown of a Hatt, which we past about 9 o'Clock in the forenoon.

11th. Winds Southerly in the day, and in the night Westerly; a Gentle breeze and Clear weather. At 4 P.M. past, at the distance of one Mile, a low rocky point which I named Point Stephens (Latitude 32 degrees 45 minutes); on the North side of this point is an inlet which I called Port Stephens* (* Called after Mr. Stephens, one of the Secretaries to the Admiralty. It is a large and fine harbour.) (Latitude 32 degrees 40 minutes; Longitude 207 degrees 51 minutes), that appear'd to me from the Masthead to be shelter'd from all Winds. At the Entrance lay 3 Small Islands, 2 of which are of a Tolerable height, and on the Main, near the shore, are some high round hills that make at a distance like Islands. In passing this bay at the distance of 2 or 3 miles from the Shore our soundings were from 33 to 27 fathoms; from which I conjectured that there must be a sufficient depth of Water for Shipping in the bay. We saw several smokes a little way in the Country upon the flat land; by this I did suppose that there were Lagoons which afforded subsistance for the Natives, such as shell-fish, etc., for we as yet know nothing else they have to live upon. At 1/2 past 5, the Northermost land in sight bore North 36 degrees East, and Point Stephens South-West, distant 4 Leagues, at which time we took in our Steerings,* (* Studding sails.) and run under an Easey sail all night until 4 A.M., when we made all sail; our soundings in the night were from 48 to 62 fathoms, at the distance of between 3 and 4 Leagues from the land. At 8 we were abreast of a high point of Land, which made in 2 Hillocks; this point I called Cape Hawke* (* After Admiral Sir Edward Hawke, First Lord of the Admiralty.) (Latitude 32 degrees 14 minutes South, Longitude 207 degrees 30 minutes West). It bore from us at this time West distant 8 Miles, and the same time the Northermost land in sight bore North 6 degrees East, and appear'd high and like an Island. At Noon this land bore North 8 degrees East, the Northermost land in sight North 13 degrees East, and Cape Hawke South 37 degrees West. Latitude in per Observation 32 degrees 2 minutes South, which was 12 Miles to the Southward of that given by the Log, which I do suppose to be owing to a Current setting that way. Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon was first North-East by East, 27 Miles, then North 10 degrees East, 37 Miles; Longitude in 207 degrees 20 minutes West; Variation per morning Amplitude and Azimuth 9 degrees 10 minutes East.

9th May 1770

[Sailing north up the coast from Botany Bay, New South Wales]
Winds northerly; most part a fresh breeze, with which we stood off Shore until 12 at Night. At the distance of 5 Leagues from the land had 70 fathoms, at the distance of 6 Leagues 80 fathoms, which is the Extent of the Soundings, for at the Distance of 10 Leagues off we had no ground with 150 fathoms. Stood in Shore until 8 o'Clock A.M., and hardly fetched Cape Three Points; having a little wind at North-West by North, we tack'd, and stood off until Noon, at which Time we Tack'd with the wind at North-North-East, being then in the Latitude of 33 degrees 37 minutes South, Cape Three Points bearing North West by West, distance 4 Leagues.

Joseph Banks Journal
Wind continued foul and we turnd to windward all day to no manner of purpose.

8th May 1770

[Sailing north up the coast from Botany Bay, New South Wales]
Tuesday, 8th. Variable Light Airs and Clear weather. In the P.M. saw some smooks upon the Shore, and in the Evening found the Variation to be 8 degrees 25 minutes East; at this time we were about 2 or 3 Miles from the land, and had 28 fathoms Water. Our situation at Noon was nearly the same as Yesterday, having advanced not one Step to the Northward.

Joseph Banks Journal
Very light breezes and weather sultry all day. We had lost ground yesterday so the land was what we had seen before; upon it however we observd several fires upon it. At night a foul wind rose up much at the same time and much in the same manner as yesterday.

7th May 1770

[Departure from Botany Bay, New South Wales]
Little wind, Southerly, and Serene pleasant Weather. In the P.M. found the Variation by several Azimuths to be 8 degrees East; at sunset the Northermost land in sight bore North 26 degrees East; and some broken land that appear'd to form a bay bore North 40 degrees West, distant 4 Leagues. This Bay I named Broken bay,* (* The Hawkesbury River, the largest on the east coast of Australia, runs into Broken Bay.) Latitude 33 degrees 36 minutes South. We steer'd along shore North-North-East all night at the distance of about 3 Leagues from the land, having from 32 to 36 fathoms, hard sandy bottom. A little after sun rise I took several Azimuths with 4 Needles belonging to the Azimuth Compass, the mean result of which gave the Variation of 7 degrees 56 minutes East. At Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 33 degrees 22 minutes South, and about 3 Leagues from the land, the Northermost part of which in sight bore North 19 degrees East. Some pretty high land which projected out in 3 bluff Points, and occasioned my calling it Cape 3 Points (Latitude 33 degrees 33 minutes South), bore South-West, distant 5 Leagues; Longitude made from Botany Bay 0 degrees 19 minutes East.

Joseph Banks Journal
During last night a very large dew fell which wetted all our sails as compleatly as if they had been dippd overboard; for several days past our dews have been uncommonly large. Most part of the day was calm, at night a foul wind.

6th May 1770

[Description of Botany Bay, New South Wales]
In the evening the Yawl return'd from fishing, having Caught 2 Sting rays weighing near 600 pounds. The great quantity of plants Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander found in this place occasioned my giving it the Name of Botany Bay.* (* The Bay was at first called Stingray Bay. The plan of it at the Admiralty is called by this name, and none of the logs know Botany Bay. It seems probable that Cook finally settled on the name after the ship left, and when Banks had had time to examine his collections. A monument was erected in 1870 near the spot, on the southern side, where Cook first landed. Botany Bay was intended to be the site where the first settlement of convicts should be made, but on the arrival of Captain Phillip, on January 18th, 1788, he found it so unsuited for the number of his colony that he started in a boat to examine Broken Bay. On his way he went into Port Jackson, and immediately decided on settling there. On the 25th and 26th the ships went round, and Sydney was founded.)

It is situated in the Latitude of 34 degrees 0 minutes South, Longitude 208 degrees 37 minutes West. It is capacious, safe, and Commodious; it may be known by the land on the Sea Coast, which is of a pretty even and moderate height, Rather higher than it is inland, with steep rocky Clifts next the Sea, and looks like a long Island lying close under the Shore. The Entrance of the Bay lies about the Middle of this land. In coming from the Southward it is discover'd before you are abreast of it, which you cannot do in coming from the Northward; the entrance is little more than a Quarter of a Mile broad, and lies in West-North-West. To sail into it keep the South shore on board until within a small bare Island, which lies close under the North Shore. Being within that Island the deepest of Water is on that side, 7, 6 and 5 fathoms a good way up; there is Shoald Water a good way off from the South Shore--from the inner South Point quite to the head of the harbour; but over towards the North and North-West Shore is a Channell of 12 or 14 feet at low Water, 3 or 4 Leagues up, to a place where there is 3 or 4 fathoms; but there I found very little fresh Water. We Anchor'd near the South Shore about a Mile within the Entrance for the Conveniency of Sailing with a Southerly wind and the getting of Fresh Water; but I afterwards found a very fine stream of fresh Water on the North shore in the first sandy Cove within the Island, before which the Ship might lay almost land locked, and wood for fuel may be got everywhere. Although wood is here in great plenty, yet there is very little Variety; the bigest trees are as large or larger than our Oaks in England, and grows a good deal like them, and Yields a reddish Gum; the wood itself is heavy, hard, and black like Lignum Vitae. Another sort that grows tall and Strait something like Pines--the wood of this is hard and Ponderous, and something of the Nature of America live Oak. These 2 are all the Timber trees I met with; there are a few sorts of Shrubs and several Palm Trees and Mangroves about the Head of the Harbour. The Country is woody, low, and flat as far in as we could see, and I believe that the Soil is in general sandy.

In the Wood are a variety of very beautiful birds, such as Cocatoos, Lorryquets, Parrots, etc., and crows Exactly like those we have in England. Water fowl is no less plenty about the head of the Harbour, where there is large flats of sand and Mud, on which they seek their food; the most of these were unknown to us, one sort especially, which was black and white, and as large as a Goose, but most like a Pelican.* (* Most probably the Black and White or Semipalmated Goose, now exterminated in these parts.) On the sand and Mud banks are Oysters, Muscles, Cockles, etc., which I believe are the Chief support of the inhabitants, who go into Shoald Water with their little Canoes and peck them out of the sand and Mud with their hands, and sometimes roast and Eat them in the Canoe, having often a fire for that purpose, as I suppose, for I know no other it can be for. The Natives do not appear to be numerous, neither do they seem to live in large bodies, but dispers'd in small parties along by the Water side. Those I saw were about as tall as Europeans, of a very dark brown Colour, but not black, nor had they woolly, frizled hair, but black and lank like ours. No sort of Cloathing or Ornaments were ever seen by any of us upon any one of them, or in or about any of their Hutts; from which I conclude that they never wear any. Some that we saw had their faces and bodies painted with a sort of White Paint or Pigment. Altho' I have said that shell fish is their Chief support, yet they catch other sorts of fish, some of which we found roasting on the fire the first time we landed; some of these they strike with Gigs,* (* A fishing implement like a trident.) and others they catch with hook and line; we have seen them strike fish with gigs, and hooks and lines are found in their Hutts. Sting rays, I believe, they do not eat, because I never saw the least remains of one near any of their Hutts or fire places. However, we could know but very little of their Customs, as we never were able to form any Connections with them; they had not so much as touch'd the things we had left in their Hutts on purpose for them to take away.

During our stay in this Harbour I caused the English Colours to be display'd ashore every day, and an inscription to be cut out upon one of the Trees near the Watering place, setting forth the Ship's Name, Date, etc. [Off Port Jackson, New South Wales.] 

Having seen everything this place afforded, we, at daylight in the morning, weigh'd with a light breeze at North-West, and put to Sea, and the wind soon after coming to the Southward we steer'd along shore North-North-East, and at Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 33 degrees 50 minutes South, about 2 or 3 Miles from the Land, and abreast of a Bay, wherein there appear'd to be safe Anchorage, which I called Port Jackson.* (* Cook having completed his water at Botany Bay, and having many hundreds of miles of coast before him, did not examine Port Jackson, the magnificent harbour in which Sydney, the capital of New South Wales, now lies. His chart gives the shape of what he could see very accurately, but the main arm of the harbour is hidden from the sea. He named the bay after Mr. (afterwards Sir George) Jackson, one of the Secretaries of the Admiralty. This fact is recorded on a tablet in the Bishop Stortford Church to the memory of Sir George Duckett, which name Sir George had assumed in later years. This interesting evidence was brought to light by Sir Alfred Stephen, Lieutenant-Governor of New South Wales, and puts an end to the legend which was long current, that Port Jackson was named after a sailor who first saw it. There was, moreover, no person of the name of Jackson on board.) It lies 3 leagues to the Northward of Botany Bay. I had almost forgot to mention that it is high water in this Bay at the full and change of the Moon about 8 o'Clock, and rises and falls upon a Perpendicular about 4 or 5 feet.

Joseph Banks Journal
Went to sea this morn with a fair breeze of wind. The land we saild past during the whole forenoon appeard broken and likely for harbours; in the afternoon again woody and very pleasant. We dind to day upon the stingray and his tripe: the fish itself was not quite so good as a scate nor was it much inferior, the tripe every body thought excellent. We had with it a dish of the leaves of tetragonia cornuta boild, which eat as well as spinage or very near it.