8th November 1768

Off the Coast of Espirito Santo, Brazil
Fresh breezes and Cloudy weather. P.M. variation by the Mean of 12 Azimuths 5 degrees 26 minutes East, and by an Amplitude in the Morning 7 degrees 52 minutes. At 6 a.m. saw the Land of Brazil bearing North-West 1/2 North, distance 8 or 10 leagues. At 8 Sounded, had 37 fathoms, Coarse Sand, broken Shells, and Coral Rocks.

At 9 brought too and Spoke with a Fishing Boat, who informed us that the land in sight lay to the Southward of Santo Espiritu. It appears high and Mountainous.  Made Sail in Shore, the wind being Southerly. Had from the above Depth to 14 fathoms the same sort of Bottom. Found the Ship at Noon by Observation 10 Miles to the Southward of account, which I suppose to be occasioned by a Current setting between the South and West. Wind North-North-East, North by West, South-South-West to South by West; course South 50 degrees West; distance 140 miles; latitude 21 degrees 16 minutes South, longitude 37 degrees 35 minutes West.

Joseph Banks Journal
Continent of South America
At day break today we made the Land which Provd to be the Continent of S. America in Lat. 21.16; about ten we saw a fishing boat who told us that the countrey we saw belongd to the Captainship of Espirito Santo.

Doctor Solander and myself went on board this boat in which were 11 men (9 of whom were blacks) who all fishd with lines. We bought of them the cheif part of their cargo consisting of Dolphins, two kinds of large Pelagick Scombers, Sea Bream and the fish calld in the West Indies Welshman, for which they made us pay 19 shillings and Sixpence. We had taken Spanish silver with us which we imagind was the currency of the Continent, we were therefore not a little surprizd that they askd us for English shillings and preferrd two which we by accident had to the Pistereens, tho they after some words took them also. The Business of these people seemd to be going a good distance from land and catching large fish, which they salted in bulk in a place in the middle of their boat made for that purpose; in this place was about 2 Quintals of fish laid in salt which they offerd to sale for 16 shillings, and would doubtless have taken half the money had we been inclind to buy them, but fresh provisions was all we wanted and the fresh fish they had which we bought servd the whole ships company.

Their provision for the Sea consisted of a cask of water and a bag of the flour of Cassada which they call Farinha de Pao or wooden flour, a very proper name for it which indeed tastes more like powderd chipps than any thing else.

Their method of drinking out of their cask of water was truely primitive and pleasd me much. The cask was large, as broad as the boat and exactly fitted a place in the Ballast made for it, they consequently could not get at the bottom of it to put in a tap by which the water might be drawn out. To remedy this dificulty they made use of a cane about three feet long hollow and open at each end; this the man who wanted to drink desired his neighbour to fill for him, which he did by putting it into the cask, and laying the palm of his hand over the uppermost hole hinderd the water from running out of the other, to which the drinker applyd his mouth and the other taking off his hand lett the liquor run into the drinkers mouth till he was satisfied.

Soon after we came on board a Sphynx was taken which provd to be quite a new one, and a small bird also who was the Tanagra Jacarini of Linn; it seemd however from Linnaeus description as well as Edwards's and Brissons that neither of them had seen the Bird which was in reality a Loxia nitens.

The fish Brought on board provd to be Scomber anxia and Falcatus, Coryphoena Hipparis Sparus pagrus and Sciaena rubens; the second and last not being before describd we calld them by these names.

Afternoon the wind came about South and South by East and it soon came on to blow fresh which we were not at all accustomd to, so we Boarded it along shore without gaining much.

Sydney Parkinson’s Journal
We discovered land at about eight leagues distance, and spoke with the crew of a Portugueze fishing vessel, of whom Mr. Banks bought a great quantity of fish, among which were dolphins and breams, which afforded much speculation to our naturalists. After having left the vessel, we stood in for the land, which proved to be the Brazils…

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