29th & 30th September 1770

[From Savu to Sunda Strait]
29th. Moderate breeze at South-East and clear pleasant weather, Steer'd North-West all this day, in order to make the land of Java. At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 9 degrees 31 minutes South and Longitude 251 degrees 40 minutes West.

30th. Fresh gales and fair weather. In the A.M. I took into my possession the Officers', Petty Officers' and Seamen's Log Books and Journals, at least all that I could find, and enjoin'd every one not to divulge where they had been.* (* These logs are now in the Public Record Office. Mr. Green's log ends on the 2nd October. Not being an officer, Cook doubtless overlooked it at first. This log should by rights have been returned to Mr. Green, but as he died shortly after leaving Batavia, it has found its way, with the others, to the Record Office.) At noon our Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday at noon, is North 20 degrees West, 126 Miles, which brought us into the Latitude of 7 degrees 34 minutes South and Longitude 252 degrees 23 minutes West.

Joseph Banks Journal
29th. Fresh trade. More Gannets and Man of War birds than usual were seen, and one tropick bird which seemd to be of a brownish or buff colour but stayd a very short time about the ship.

30th.  Two more Buff colourd Tropick birds were about the ship in the morn in company with a white one which was one third at least larger than they were; From thence I am inclind to think that they may be the Paille-en-cul fauve of Brisson, Vol. VI, p. 489 and realy a distinct species. Besides these many Birds were about the ship, Man of War, Bobies, Gannets etc., who all flew nearer the ship and shewd less fear of her than usual; in the Eve many very small whiteish birds were seen which flew in flocks. We had all this day stood in directly for the Land, yet night came and tho many had seen Capes and Headlands in the air yet no real land was seen which made us rather uneasy, as we had great reason to suppose that we had overshot the Mouth of the Streights, no very agreable Idea. We had made 15' 30" of Longitude from the South end of Timor and thought our selves quite safe as La Neptune Oriental makes the difference to be 18' 40", yet when we recollected that our Countrey man Dampier makes only 14' we had reason to be uneasy; so at sun set we clap'd close upon a wind in order to make the best of our bargain howsoever it might turn out.

26th to 28th September 1770

[From Savu to Sunda Strait]
26th.  Winds and weather as yesterday. At Noon Latitude in 11 degrees 10 minutes, Longitude 245 degrees 41" West.

27th.  Winds at South-South-East; a fresh breeze. In the evening found the variation to be 3 degrees 10 minutes West. At noon we were in the Longitude of 247 degrees 42 minutes West, and Latitude 10 degrees 47 minutes, which is 25 Miles to the Northward of the Log, which I know not how to account for.

28th.  Winds at South-South-East and South-East; a fresh breeze and Cloudy, with some Showers of rain. At Noon Latitude observed 10 degrees 51 minutes South, which is agreeable to the Logg, Longitude in 250 degrees 9 minutes, West.

Joseph Banks Journal
26th.  Trade rather slacker than it had been. Eat today a buttock of Buffaloe which had been 3 days in salt: it eat so well and had so thouroughly taken salt that it was resolvd to Salt meat for the ships company when our biggest Buffaloes who would weigh above 300 lb were killd.

27th.  Trade fresher and more to the S. Men of War birds, Gannets and Black Shearwaters in abundance.

28th.  Squally in the night with rain and fine fresh trade shov'd us on Merrily. Our beef experiment was this day tried and succeeded but scurvily. The meat which had been killd on the 26th was not salted till Cold: it hardly stunk: the outside which had been in absolute contact with the salt was quite good but under that which formd a crust of various thickness the meat was in a wonderfull manner corrupted; it lookd well but every fibre was destroyd and disolv'd so that the whole was a paste of the consistence of soft putty yet this hard[l]y stunk. Some Gannets and Man of War birds were about the Ship.

24th & 25th September 1770

[From Savu to Sunda Strait]
24th. Winds at East and South-East; a moderate breeze, and fine, pleasant weather. In the evening found the Variation to be 2 degrees 44 minutes West. At noon our Latitude was 11 degrees 8 minutes South, Longitude 242 degrees 13 minutes West. Since we have been clear of the Islands we have had constantly a swell from the Southward which I do not suppose is owing to the winds blowing anywhere from thence, but to the Sea, being so determined by the portion of the Coast of New Holland.

25th. Moderate breezes at South-East, and clear, pleasant weather. At Noon our Latitude was 11 degrees 13 minutes South, and Longitude 244 degrees 41" West.

Joseph Banks Journal
24th. Breeze freshning by very gradual degrees together with a long swell heaving in from the Southward, sure sign that there was now no more land to interrupt us in that direction, was an agreable subject of conversation. Infinite flying fish and bobies; some Gannets seen.

25th. Trade, fish, Gannets, bobies and Conversation much as yesterday.

23rd September 1770

[From Savu to Sunda Strait]
Winds Easterly; a moderate breeze, which by noon brought us into the Latitude of 11 degrees 10 minutes South, Longitude 240 degrees 48 minutes West. Course and distance saild since yesterday at noon is West, 8 miles.

Joseph Banks Journal
Weather, Bobies and Albecores much as Yesterday. These light winds which would have been almost intolerable to empty stomachs sat pretty easily on our full ones.

22nd September 1770

[From Savu to Sunda Strait]
Winds at South-South-East, South-East, and East; a gentle breeze, which we steer'd West-South-West by Compass. At 4 o'Clock we discover'd a small low Island* (* Dama Island.) bearing South-South-West, distant 3 Leagues. The Island hath no place in any of our Charts: Latitude 10 degrees 47 minutes South, Longitude 238 degrees 28 minutes West. At Noon we were in the Latitude of 11 degrees 9 minutes South, Longitude 239 degrees 26 minutes West. Course and distance sail'd since yesterday noon, South 63 West, 67 miles.

Joseph Banks Journal
Still but little wind. Many very large Albecores were leaping about the ship at night; some bobies but none were fools enough to settle on the Rigging.

21st September 1770

[Leaving Savu]
We got under sail, and stood away to the Westward along the North side of the Island, and another smaller Island, which lies farther to the Westward, which last bore from us at Noon South-South-East, distant 2 Leagues.

Joseph Banks Journal
Notwithstanding our Freind Mr Lange invited us very kindly last night to come ashore again in the morn and we saw divers Jarrs of Syrup and sheep etc. waiting for us upon the Beach, a sure sign that the Radjas prohibition was not intended to prejudice trade in the least, We who had now got plenty of all the refreshments which the Isle afforded thought it most prudent to weigh and sail directly for Batavia; all our fears of Westerly winds being dissipated By Mr Lange's assuring us that the Easterly Monsoon would prevail for two Months longer. Accordingly we did so and soon passd by the small Island laying to the W about a leag[u]e from Savoo -- its name has been unluckily forgot, Pulo Samiri, or some thing like it may be. In the Evening a small Island was in sight to the Southward; trade rather slack. One of the Buffaloes who was killd weig'd only 166 lb, which was a great draw back on our expectations, who thought that even that tho much the least of our stock would not weigh less than 300 lb.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
After a stay of two or three days, we left Savoo,

20th September 1770

[At anchor at Savu]
We stay'd at the King's Pallace all the Afternoon, and at last were obliged to return on board without doing anything farther than a promise of having some Buffaloes in the morning; which we had now no great reason to rely on. In the morning I went on shore again, and was showed one small Buffaloe, which they asked 5 Guineas for. I offer'd 3, which the man told me he would gladly take, and sent a Message to the king to let him know what I had offer'd. The Messenger soon return'd, and let me know that I could not have it under 5 Guineas; and this I refused to give, knowing it was not worth one fifth part of the money. But this, my refusal, had like to have overset all we had before done, for soon after about 100 Men, some Arm'd with Musquets, others with Lances, came down to the Landing Place. Besides the officer that commanded this party, there came along with them a Man who spoke Portuguese, and I believe was born of Portuguese Parents. This man is here (as we afterwards Understood) as an Assistant to the Dutch Factor. He deliver'd to me the King's order, or rather those of the Dutch Factor, the purport of which was that we were to stay no longer than this day, pretending that the people would not trade with us because we wanted their provisions for nothing, etc.; whereas the Natives shew'd the greatest inclination imaginable to supply us with whatever they had, and were far more desirous of goods than money, and were, before this man came, selling us Fowls and Syrup as fast as they could bring these things down. From this and other Circumstances we were well Assured that this was all the Dutchman's doing, in order to extort from us a sum of Money to put into his own pocket.

There hapned to be an old Raja at this time upon the beach, whose Interest I had secured in the Morning by presenting him with a Spy-glass; this man I now took by the hand, and presented him with an old broad sword. This effectually secured him in our Interest, for the Moment he got it he began to flourish it over the old Portuguese, and made him and the Officer commanded the party to sit down at his back side. Immediately after this trade was restored again for Fowls, etc., with more Spirit than ever; but before I could begin a Trade for Buffaloes, which was what we most wanted, I was obliged to give 10 Guineas for 2, one of which weigh'd only 160 pounds. After this I bought 7 more at a more reasonable price, one of which we lost after he was paid for. I might now have purchased as many as I pleased, for they now drove them down to the Water side by Herds; but having got as many as I well know'd what to do with, and likewise a number of Fowls, and a large quantity of Syrup, I resolved to make no longer stay.

19th September 1770

[At anchor at Savu]
At 2 P.M. the Dutch Governor, and king of this part of the Island, with his attendance, came on board with Mr. Gore (he having left 2 Gentlemen ashore as Hostages). We entertained them at Dinner in the best Manner we could, gave them plenty of good Liquor, made them some considerable presents, and at their going away Saluted them with 9 Guns. In return for these favours they made many fair Promises that we should be immediately supplied with everything we wanted at the same price the Dutch East India Company had it; and that in the morning Buffaloes, Hogs, Sheep, etc., should be down on the beach for us to look at, and agree upon a price. I was not at all at a loss for Interpreters, for both Dr. Solander and Mr. Sporing understood Dutch enough to keep up a Conversation with the Dutchman, and several of the Natives could speak Portuguese, which language 2 or 3 of my people understood.

In the morning I went on shore, accompanied by Mr. Banks and several of the Officers and Gentlemen, to return the King's Visit; but my Chief Business was to see how well they would perform their Promises in regard to the things I wanted. We had not been long ashore before we found that they had promised more than they ever intended to perform; for, instead of finding Buffaloes upon the beach, we did not so much as see one, or the least preparations making for bringing any down, either by the Dutch Factor or the King. The former pretended he had been very ill all night, and told us that he had had a letter from the Governor of Concordia in Timor, acquainting him that a ship (meaning us) had lately passed that Island, and that if she should touch at this, and be in want of anything, he was to supply her; but he was not to suffer her to make any stay, nor to distribute, or leave behind her to be distributed, any valuable presents to the inferior Natives.

This we looked upon to be Afection that hardly answer'd any purpose, unless it was leting us see how the Dutch had insinuated themselves into favour with these people, which never could be his intention. However, both he and the King still promised we should have what we wanted, but pretended the Buffaloes were far in the Country, and could not be brought down before night. With these excuses we were obliged to be satisfied. The King gave us a dinner of boil'd Pork and Rice, served up in Baskets after their manner, and Palm wine to drink; with this, and some of our own Liquor, we fair'd Tolerable well. After we had dined our Servants were called in to pertake of what remain'd, which was more than they could Eat.

Joseph Banks Journal
In the morn we went ashore and proceeded immediately to the house of assembly, a large house which we had yesterday mistaken for the Kings Palace. This as well as 2 or 3 more in the Town or Negree as the Indians call it have been built by the Duch East Indian Company; they are distinguishd from the rest by 2 peices of wood, one at each end of the ridge of the house, resembling cows horns--undoubtedly the thing designd by the Indian who on the 17th made a sign of the mark by which we were to know the town by crossing his fingers, which our Catholick Portugese interpreted into a cross, from whence cheifly we were assur'd that the settlement was originaly Portugese.

In this house of Assembly we met My [n]heer Lange and the Radja A Madocho Lomi Djara attended by many of the Principal people: we told them that we had in the boat an assortment of what few goods we had to truck with and desird leave to bring them ashore which was immediately granted and orders given accordingly. We then attempted to settle the Price of Buffaloes, sheep, hogs, etc. which were to be payd in money, but here Mynheer Lange left us and told us that we must settle that with the natives who would bring down large quantities to the Beach. By this time the morning was pretty far advanc'd and we, resolving not to go on board and eat salt meat when such a profusion of fresh was continualy talkd of, petitiond his majesty that we might have liberty to purchase a small Hog, some rice etc. and employ his subjects to cook them for our dinner. He answerd that if we could eat victuals dressed by his subjects, which he could hardly suppose, he would do himself the honour of entertaining us; we expressd our gratitude and sent immediately on board for liquors.

About 5 O'Clock dinner was ready, consisting of 36 dishes or rather baskets containing alternately Rice and Boild Pork, and 3 earthen ware bowls of Soup or rather the Broth in which the Pork had been boild; these were rangd on the floor and matts laid round them for us to set upon. We were now conducted by turns to a hole in the floor near which stood a man with a basket of water in his hand; here we wash'd our hands and then rang'd ourselves in order round the victuals waiting for the King to set down. We were told however that the custom of the countrey was that the entertainer never sets down to meat with his guests, however if we suspected the victuals to be poisoned he would willingly do it; we suspected nothing and therefore desire'd that all things might go as usual; all then sitting down we eat with good appetites, the Prime Minister and My[n]heer Lange partaking with us. Our wine passd briskly about, the Radja alone refusing to drink with us saying that it was wrong for the master of the feast to be in liquor. The pork was excellent, the Rice as good, the broth not bad, the spoons only which were made of leaves were so small that few of us had patience to eat it: every one however made a hearty dinner and as soon as we had done removd, as the custom it seems was to let the Servants and seamen take our Places. These could not dispach all, but when the women came to take away they forcd them to take away with them all the Pork that was left.

Before dinner Mynheer Lange had mentiond to us a letter which he had in the morn receivd from the Governor of Timor: the particulars of it were now discussd. It acquainted him that a ship had been seen off that Island and had Steerd from thence towards that which we were now upon: in case such ship was to touch there in any distress she was to be supplied with what she wanted but was not to be allowd to make any stay more than was necessary, and was particularly requird not to make any large presents to the inferior People, or to leave any with the Principal ones to be distributed among them after he was gone. This we were told did not at all extend to the Beads or small peices of cloth which we gave the Natives in return for their small civilities, as bringing us palm wine etc. Some of our Gentlemen were of opinion that the whole of this Letter was an imposition but whether it was or not I shall not take upon myself to determine.

In the Evening we had intelligence from our trading place that No Buffelloes or hogs had been brought down, a few sheep only, which were taken away before our people who had sent for money could procure it; some few fouls however were bought and a large quantity of a kind of Syrup made from the Juice of the palm tree, which tho infinitely superior to melasses or treacle sold at a very small price. We complaind to Mynheer Lange. He said that as we had not ourselves been down upon the Beach the Natives were afraid to take money of any one else least it should be false. On this the Captn went immediately down but could see no cattle. While he was gone Mr Lange complaind that our people had yet offerd no gold for any thing; this he said the Islanders were displeasd at who had expected to have gold for their stock.

18th September 1770

[At anchor at Savu]
As soon as Mr. Gore landed he was meet on the beach by several people, both Horse and Foot, who gave him to understand that there was a Bay to Leeward where we could Anchor, and likewise get refreshments. Upon Mr. Gore's return with this intelligence we bore away for the Bay, in which we Anchor'd at 7 o'Clock in 38 fathoms Water, Clean sandy bottom. About a Mile from Shore the North point of the Bay bore North 30 degrees East, 2 1/2 Miles, and the South point or West end of the Island bore South 63 degrees West. Two hours before we Anchor'd we saw Dutch Colours hoisted in a Village which stands about a Mile inland, and at day light in the Morning the same Colours were hoisted on the beach abreast of the Ship. By this I was no longer in doubt but what here was a Dutch settlement, and accordingly sent Lieutenant Gore on shore to wait upon the Governor, or chief person residing here, to acquaint him with the reasons that induced us to touch at this Island.

Upon Mr. Gore's landing we could perceive that he was received by a Guard of the Natives, and not Dutch Troops, and Conducted up to the Village where the Colours were hoisted last night. Some time after this I received a message from him, acquainting me that he was there with the king of the Island, who had told him that he could not supply him with anything without leave from the Dutch Governor, who resided at another part of the Island, but that he had sent to acquaint him of our Arrival and request.

Joseph Banks Journal 
In the morn the Boat with the 2nd Lieutenant went ashore and was receivd by a guard of 20 or 30 Indians armd with musquets, who conducted him to the town about a mile in the countrey, marching without any order or regularity and carrying away with them Duch Colours which had been hoisted upon the beach opposite to where the ship lay. Here he was introduc'd to the Radja or Indian King who he told by a Portugese interpreter that we were an English man of war who had been long at sea and had many sick on board, for whoom we wanted to purchase such refreshments as the Island afforded. He answerd that he was willing to supply us with every thing we should want, but being in alliance with the Duch East Indian Company he was not allowd to trade with any other people without their consent, which however he would immediately apply for to a Duchman belonging to that Company who was the only white man residing upon the Island. A letter was accordingly dispatchd immediately and after some hours waiting answerd by the man in Person, who assurd him with many Civilities that we were at liberty to buy of the natives whatever we pleasd. He express'd a desire of coming on board, as well as the King and several of his attendants, provided however that some of our people might stay on shore, on which two were left and about 2 they arrivd.

Our dinners were ready and they readily agreed to dine with us. At setting down however the King excusd himself, saying that he did not imagine that we who were white men would suffer him who was black to set down in our company. A complement however removd his scruples and he and his prime minister sat down and eat sparingly. During all dinner time we receivd many professions of freindship from both the King and the European who was a native of Saxony by name Johan Christopr Lange. Mutton was our fare: the King expressd a desire of having an English sheep; we had one left which was presented to him. An English dog was then askd for and my greyhound presented to him. Mynheer Lange then hinted that a spying glass would be acceptable and was immediately presented with one. We were told that the Island abounded in Buffaloes, sheep, hogs, and fowls, all which should the next day be drove down to the Beach and we might buy any quantity of them. This agreable intelligence put us all into high spirits and the liquor went about full as much as either Mynheer Lange or the Indians could bear, who however expressed a desire of going away before they were quite drunk.

They were receivd upon deck as they had been when they came on board, by the marines under arms: the King expresssd a desire of Seeing them excersise, which accordingly they did and fird 3 rounds, much to his majesties satisfaction, who expressd great surprize particularly at their so speedily cocking their guns, which he expressd by striking a stick upon the side of the ship saying that all the locks made but one click. Dr Solander and myself went ashore in the Boat with them; as soon as we put off they saluted the ship with three chears which the ship answerd with five guns. We landed and walkd up to the town which consisted of a good many houses, some tolerably large, each being a roof of thach covering a boarded floor supported by Pillars 3 or 4 feet from the ground. Before we had been long there it began to grow dark and we returnd on board, having only just tasted their Palm wine which had a very sweet taste and suited all our palates very well, giving us at the same time hopes that it might be servicable to our sick, as being the fresh and unfermented juice of the tree it promisd ante-scorbutick virtues.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
As we were not permitted to examine the country, or its products, the Dutch-man not suffering us to go any where without a strong guard, I amused myself in picking up, from the natives of the island, what particulars I could learn in respect to their language, from which I afterwards formed the following vocabulary.

17th September 1770

[Anchor at Savu]
Winds Easterly, with which we steer'd West-North-West until 2 o'Clock, when being pretty near the North end of Rotte, we hauled up North-North-West, in order to go between it and Anaboa. After steering 3 Leagues upon this Course we edged away North-West by West, and by 6 we were clear of all the Islands; at this time the South part of Anaboa, which lies in the Latitude of 10 degrees 15 minutes South, bore North-East, distant 4 Leagues, and the Island of Rotte extending as far to the Southward as South 36 degrees West. The North End of this Island and the South end of Timor lies North 1/2 East and 1/2 West, distant about 3 or 4 Leagues from each other. At the West end of the Passage between Rotte and Anaboa are two Small Islands; the one lays near the Rotte shore and the other off the South-West point of Anaboa; there is a good Channel between the 2 of 5 or 6 Miles broad, which we came thro'. Being now clear of the Islands we steer'd a West course all night until 6 a.m., when we unexpectedly saw an Island* (* Savu. An island about twenty miles in length.) bearing West-South-West, for by most of the Maps we had on board we were to the Southward of all the Islands that lay between Timor and Java; at least there were none laid down so near Timor in this Latitude by almost one half, which made me at first think it a new discovery; but in this I was mistaken.

We now steer'd directly for it, and by 10 o'Clock were close in with the North side, where we saw Houses, Cocoa Nutt Trees, and a Flock of Cattle grazing; these were Temptations hardly to be withstood by people in our situation, especially such as were but in a very indifferent State of Health, and I may say mind too, for in some this last was worse than the other, since I refused to touch at the Island of Timor, whereupon I thought I could not do less than to try to procure some refreshments here, as there appeared to be plenty.* (* Cook's utter indifference as to what he eat or drank made him regard privations in the matter of food with an equanimity which was not shared by the rest of his companions.)

With this View we hoisted out the Pinnace, in which I sent Lieutenant Gore in shore to see if there were any Convenient place to land, sending some trifles along with him to give to the Natives in case he saw any. Mr. Gore landed in a small sandy cove near to some Houses, and was met on the beach by 8 or 10 of the people, who from both their behaviour and what they had about them shew'd that they had Commerce with Europeans; upon Mr. Gore's returning with this report, and likewise that there was No Anchorage for the Ship, I sent him away with both money and goods to try to purchase some refreshments, while we keept standing on and off with the Ship. At Noon we were about a Mile from the Shore of the Island, which extends from South-East to West-North-West, Latitude 10 degrees 27 minutes, Longitude 237 degrees 31 minutes West.

Joseph Banks Journal
In the morn an Island in sight very imperfectly if at all laid down in the Charts. By 10 we were very near the East end of it; it was not high, but composd of gently sloping hills and vales almost intirely cleard and coverd with innumerable Palm trees; near the Beach were many Houses, but no people were seen stirring. Soon after we passd the NE point, and saw on the beach a large flock of sheep, but still no people: the North side of the Isle appeard scarce at all cultivated, but like that of Rotte coverd with thick brush wood almost or quite destitute of Leaves: among these as we pass'd along we saw numerous flocks of sheep, but no houses or plantations. At last however one was discoverd in a grove of Cocoa nut trees, and it was resolvd to send a boat in order to attempt a commerce with people who seemd so well able to supply our many Necessities. The ship ply'd off and on and a Lieutenant went: before he returnd we saw on the Hills 2 men on horseback, who seemd to ride as for their amusement, looking often at the ship--a circumstance which made us at once conclude that their were Europeans among the Islanders by whoom we should be receivd at least more politely than we were us'd to be by uncivilizd Indians.

After a very short stay he returnd bringing word that he had seen Indians in all respects as colour, dress etc. much resembling the Malays; that they very civily invited him ashore and conversd with him by signs but neither party could understand the other; they were totaly unarmd except the knives which they wore in their girdles and had with them a Jackass, a sure sign that Europeans had been among them. In Plying off and on we had had no ground tho very near a Coral shoal which ran off from the Island, so had no hopes of anchorage here; it was therefore resolvd that we should go to the lee side of the Isle in hopes there to find a Bank; in the mean time however the boat with some truck should go ashore at the Cocoa nut grove in hopes to purchase some trifling refreshments for the sick in case we should be disapointed. It accordingly put off and Dr Solander went in it; before it reachd the shore we saw two new Horsemen, one of whoom had on a compleat European dress, Blue Coat, white waiscoat and lac'd hat: these as the Boat lay ashore seemd to take little notice of her but only Saunterd about looking much at the ship. Many more horse-men however and still more footmen gatherd round our people who were ashore, and we had the satisfaction of seeing several cocoa nuts brought into the boat, a sure sign that peace and plenty reignd ashore. After a stay of about an hour and a half the boat made a signal of having had intelligence of a harbour to Leeward and we in consequence bore away for it.

The boat following soon came on board and told us that the people had behavd in an uncommaly civil manner; that they had seen some of their principal people who were dressd in fine linnen and had chains of gold round their necks; that they had not been able to trade, the owner of the Cocoa nut trees not being there, but had got about 2 dozn of Cocoa nuts given as a present by these principal people, who accepted of Linnen in return and made them plainly understand by drawing a map upon the sand that on the Lee side of the Island was a bay in which we might anchor near a town and buy Sheep, hogs, fruits, fowls etc.; they talked much of the Portugese and of Larntuca on the Island of Ende, from which circumstance it was probable that the Portugese were somewhere on the Island tho none of the natives could speak more than a word or two of the Language, and the more so as one of the Indians in speaking of the Town made a sign of something we should see there which would shew us that we were right, by crossing his fingers, which a Portugese who was in the boat immediately interpreted into a cross, a supposition that appeard very probable; that just before they put off the man in a European dress Came towards them, but the officer in the boat not having his commission about him thoug[h]t proper to put off immediately without staying to speak to him or know what countrey man he was. We saild along shore and after having passd a point of Land found a bay shelterd from the trade wind in which we soon discoverd a large Indian town or village, on which we stood in hoisting a Jack on the foretopmast head. Soon after to our no small surprize Duch Colours were hoisted in the town and 3 guns fird. We however proceeded and just at dark got soundings and anchord about 1½ miles from the shore.

Sydney Parkinson Journal 
On the 17th in the morning, we saw a small island, which, by its appearance, promised nothing, being brown, and almost bare, excepting of palms, and a few other trees. On our approaching nearer to it, we saw several sorts of cattle, which induced us to steer to leeward and send the boat on shore; in the mean time, standing off and on, several of the natives came to them on horseback, who spoke a little Portugueze, and told them there was a bay on the other side of the next point where the ship might anchor, and we might meet with a supply of provisions. We pursued our course round the point, and anchored in a very large bay.

In the evening we saw a village, situate on the side of a hill, that had Dutch colours hoisted in it. The next morning some of us went on shore, and waited on the Raja, or king, who received us very graciously, and promised to supply us with every thing, if the Dutchman pleased: The Dutchman vouchsafed to consent, and made us a visit on board, in company with the Raja and his attendants: they dined with us; were very ceremonious, and left us, after having made specious professions of friendship. The next day some of our people returned the visit, and dined with them. After much shuffling on their part, we made shift to obtain a large number of fowls, eight bullocks, several goats, hogs, a great quantity of syrup, and a few fruits. They informed us that they had been without rain in the country for seven months, and that the herbage was almost burnt up.

This island, which is divided into five districts, is about thirty miles long; is called Savoo, and lies south of India. It contains near nine thousand inhabitants, and for these nine years past has been possessed by the Dutch, who have a resident here, and trade to India, Macassar, and Timor; and, from this island, furnish Concordia with provisions. It was formerly in the possession of the Portuguese, who left it about an hundred years since.

16th September 1770

[Off South Coast of Timor]
Light breezes from the North-East by East, with clear weather, except in the morning, when we had it cloudy, with a few small Showers of Rain. Steer'd along shore South-West and South-West by West until 6 o'Clock in the morning, when we steer'd West-South-West, and at 9, West, at which time we saw the Island Rotte right ahead.

At Noon we were in the Latitude of 10 degrees 39 minutes, Longitude 235 degrees 57 minutes; the South end of Timor bore North-North-West, distant 5 or 6 Leagues; the Island of Rotte extending from South 75 degrees West to North 67 degrees West, and the Island of Anaboa as Dampier calls it, or Seman* (* Semao. This island lies off the Dutch settlement of Koepang or Concordia in Timor; but Cook was right in supposing he would have received but a cold reception there. The Dutch discouraged any visits at their outlying settlements. Rotte is a large island lying off the south-west end of Timor.) as it is called in the Charts, which lies of the South end of Timor, bore North-West. Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 55 degrees 15 minutes West, 67 Miles. Dampier, who has given us a large and, so far as I know, an Accurate discription of the Island of Timor, says that it is 70 Leagues long and 16 Broad, and that it lies North-East and South-West. I found the East side to lie nearest North-East by East and South-West by West, and the South end to lie in the Latitude 10 degrees 23 minutes South, Longitude 236 degrees 5 minutes West from Greenwich. We run about 45 Leagues along the East side, which I observed to be free from Danger, and, excepting near the South end, the Land which bounds the Sea is low for 2, 3, or 4 Miles inland, and seem'd in many places to be intersected with Salt Creeks. Behind the low land are Mountains, which rise one above another to a considerable height.

We continually saw upon it smoakes by day and fires by night, and in many places houses and plantations. I was strongly importuned by some of my Officers to go to the Dutch settlement at Concordia, on this Island, for refreshments; but this I refused to comply with, knowing that the Dutch look upon all Europeans with a Jealous Eye that come among these Islands, and our necessities were not so great as to oblige me to put into a place where I might expect to be but indifferently treated.

Joseph Banks Journal
Trade rather fresher than yesterday. Soon after breakfast the small Island of Rotte was in sight and soon after the opening appeard plain which at last convincd our old unbeleivers that the Island we has so [long?] been off was realy Timor. Soon after dinner we passd the Streights. The Island of Rotte was not mountanous or high like Timor but consisted of Hills and vales: on the East End of it some of our people saw Houses but I did not: the North side had frequent sandy beaches near which grew some few of the Fan Palm, but the greatest part was coverd with a kind of brushy trees which had few or no leaves upon them. The opening between Timor and the Island calld by Dampeir Anabao we plainly saw which appeard narrow. Anabao itself lookd much like Timor, only was rather less high: we saw on it no signs of cultivation, but as it was misty and we were well on the other side of the streights, which we judgd to be 5 Lgs over, we saw it but very indifferently. Off the Western end of it was a small low sandy Island coverd with trees; before night however we had left all behind us.

About 10 O'Clock a Phaenomenon appeard in the heavens in many things resembling the Aurora Borealis but differing materialy in others: it consisted of a dull reddish light reaching in hight about 20 degrees above the Horizon: its extent was very different at different times but never less than 8 or 10 points of the compass. Through and out of this passd rays of a brighter colourd light tending directly upwards; these appeard and vanishd nearly in the same time as those of the Aurora Borealis, but were entirely without that trembling or vibratory motion observd in that Phaenomenon. The body of it bore from the ship SSE: it lasted as bright as ever till near 12 when I went down to sleep but how much longer I cannot tell. 

Sydney Parkinson Journal
On the 16th, in the morning, we had a brisk trade-wind from the east, and a view of the island of Rotté, which lies off the south end of Timor, and passed between it and Anamaboo, which lies to the S. W. of Timor. Both these islands were much lower than Timor; neither did they appear so fertile. We saw no houses, smoke, or cultivated land upon them, but many palms of a kind we were not acquainted with. We had a fine brisk trade-wind this day, but no soundings; latitude, by observation, was 10°24’, about four or five leagues from the southermost part of Timor. In the night, between ten and eleven o’clock, before the moon was up, we saw a remarkable phaenomenon, which appeared in the south quarter, extending one point west, and two east, and was about twenty degrees high, like a glow of red rising from fire, striped with white, which shot up from the horizon in a perpendicular direction, alternately appearing and disappearing.

15th September 1770

[Off South Coast of Timor]
In the P.M. had the Sea breezes at South-South-West and South, with which we stood to the Westward until 8 o'Clock, when being about 3 Leagues from the Land, and having very little wind, we tack'd and lay her Head off Shore. At 11 o'Clock we got the Land wind at North by West, with which we steer'd South-West by West along shore, keeping about 4 or 5 Miles from the Land on which in the morning we saw several Houses, Plantations, etc. At 9 o'Clock we got the wind at North-East by East, a light breeze; at Noon we were about 2 Leagues from the Land, which extended as far to the Southward as South-West by West; our Latitude by observation was 10 degrees 1 minute South. Course and Distance sail'd since Yesterday at Noon South 78 degrees 45 minutes West, 36 Miles.

Joseph Banks Journal
Wind came fair today and left our melancholy ones to search for some new occasion of sorrow. There was much less of it than we could have wishd and yet enough to alter the appearance of the countrey very sensibly. The Island was now Hilly tho not near so high as it had been; the Hills in general came quite down to the sea and where they did not, instead of flats and mangrovy land, were immense groves of Cocoa nut trees; about a mile up from the Beach began the plantations and houses almost innumerable standing under the shade of large groves of Palms appearing like Fan Palm (Borassus); the Plantations which were in general enclosd with some kind of Fence reach'd almost to the tops of the Hills, but near the Beach were no certain marks of habitations seen. But what surpr[i]zd us most was that notwithstanding all these indisputable marks of Populous countrey we saw neither people nor any kind of cattle stirring all the day, tho our glasses were almost continualy employ'd.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
After having been troubled several days with light breezes from the S. W. we had the wind N. E. and E. and stood southward to weather it. The land, this day, appeared very scabby to the naked eye, but, viewed through our glasses, we discovered these to be clear places, many of which were fenced about, and had houses upon them, the eaves of which reached to the ground. We saw also a great many palm-trees on the beach, as well as on the hills, some parts of which were cultivated. We had a bold shore, with hardly any beach. Toward evening the land near the shore appeared much flatter and more level; behind which, at a great distance, we discovered many high hills. Latitude 10° 1’.

11th to 14th September 1770

[In the Timor Sea]
11th. Variable light Airs and Clear weather. Steer'd North-West, in order to discover the Land plainer until 4 in the morning, at which time the wind came to North-West and West, with which we stood to the Southward until 9 o'Clock, when we Tack'd and stood North-West, having the wind at West-South-West. At sun rise in the morning we could see the land extend from West-North-West to North-East; at noon we could see it extend to the Westward as far as West by South 1/2 South, but no farther to the Eastward than North by East. We were now well assured that this was part of the Island of Timor, in consequence of which the last Island we saw must have been Timor land, the South part of which lies in the Latitude of 8 degrees 15 minutes South, Longitude 228 degrees 10 minutes, whereas in the Charts the South Point is laid down in Latitude 9 degrees 30 minutes. It is possible that the Land we saw might be some other Island; but then I cannot see how we could have miss'd seeing Timor land, soposing it to be right laid down in Latitude, as we were never to the Southward of 9 degrees 30 minutes; for my design was to have made that Island, and to have landed upon it to have seen what it produced, as it is (according to the Charts) a large Island, and not settled by the Dutch that I ever heard off. We were now in the Latitude of 9 degrees 37 minutes, Longitude 233 degrees 54 minutes West by observation of the Sun and Moon, and Yesterday we were by Observation in 233 degrees 27 minutes West. The difference is 27 minutes, which is exactly the same as what the Log gave; this, however, is a degree of accuracy in observation that is seldom to be expected.

[Off South Coast of Timor]
12th. Winds between the South and West, a light breeze and Clear weather in the P.M.; stood in shore until 8 o'Clock, then Tack'd and stood off, being about 6 Leagues from the Land, which at dark extend from South-West 1/2 West to North-East; at this time we sounded and had no ground with 140 fathoms of line, being not above 4 Leagues from the Land. At 12 o'Clock we Tack'd and stood in, having but little wind, and continued so until noon, at which time we were by Observation in Latitude 9 degrees 36 minutes South; the Log this 24 Hours gave 18 Miles Westing, but it did not appear by the land that we had made so much. We saw several Smoaks upon the Land by day, and fires in the Night. 

13th. Stood in shore, with a light breeze at South by West until 1/2 past 5 o'Clock in the P.M., when, being a Mile and a 1/2 from the Shore, and in 16 fathoms, we tack'd and stood off. At this time the Extreams of the Land extended from North-East by East to West by South 1/2 South; this last was a low point, distant from us about 3 Leagues. We were right before a small Creek or Inlet into the low land, which lies in the Latitude of 9 degrees 34 minutes South. Probably it might be the same as Dampier went into in his Boat, for it did not seem to have depth of Water sufficient for anything else. In standing in shore we sounded several times, but found no soundings until we got within 2 1/2 Miles of the Shore, where we had 25 fathoms, soft bottom. We stood off Shore until 12 o'Clock, with the wind at South, then Tack'd and stood to the Westward 2 Hours, when the wind veer'd to the South-West and West-South-West, and then we stood to the Southward. In the Morning found the Variation to be 1 degree 10 minutes West by the Amplitude, and by the Azimuth 1 degree 27 minutes West; at Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 9 degrees 45 minutes South, Longitude 234 degrees 12 minutes West, and about 6 or 7 Leagues from the land, which extended from North 31 degrees East to West-South-West 1/2 West. Winds at South-South-West, a Gentle breeze. 

14th. Light Land and Sea breezes; the former we had from West by North, and only a few hours in the morning, the latter we had from the South-South-West and South. With these winds we advanced but slowly to the Westward. At Noon we were about 6 or 7 Leagues from the Land, which extended from North by East to South 78 degrees West; our Latitude by Observation was 9 degrees 54 minutes South. Course and Distance sail'd since Yesterday noon South 68 degrees West, 24 Miles. We saw several Smoakes ashore in the P.M., and fires in the night, both upon the Low land and up in the Mountains.

9th &10th September 1770

[In the Timor Sea]
9th.  Light Airs and Clear weather the most part of this 24 Hours. In the evening found the Variation by several Azimuths to be 0 degrees 12 minutes West, and by the Amplitude 0 degrees 5 minutes West. At Noon we were by observation in the Latitude of 9 degrees 46 minutes South, Longitude 232 degrees 7 minutes West. Course and distance sail'd since yesterday at Noon South 78 degrees 45 minutes West, 52 Miles. For these 2 days past we have steer'd due West, and yet we have by observation made 16 Miles Southing--6 Miles Yesterday and 10 to-day; from which it should seem that there is a Current setting to the Southward and Westward withall, as I should suppose.

10th. Light Airs Easterly, except in the morning, when we had it at North; at sunset found the Variation to be 0 degrees 2 minutes West, at the same time saw, or thought we saw, very high land bearing North-West, and in the Morning saw the same appearances of land in the same Quarter, which left us no room to doubt but what it was land, and must be either the Island of Timor land or Timor, but which of the 2 I cannot as yet determine.* (* This was Timor. What Cook calls Timor land is probably Timor Laut, another name for the principal island of the Tenimber Group.) At Noon we were by Observation in the Latitude of 10 degrees 1 minute South, which was 15 Miles to the Southward of that given by the Log. Longitude in per Observation 233 degrees 27 minutes West.

Joseph Banks Journal
9th.  Light breezes and almost calm. Myself in my small boat a shooting killd 3 dozn. of Bobies and gannets; the last provd to be the Pelicanus Piscator of Linnaeus. At night a strong appearance of very high Land was observd to the Westward which causd many different opinions; the Seamen however in general insisted on its being clouds, an opinion which its unusual hight above the horizon considerd with respect to the faintness with which it appeard seemd much to favour.

10th.  Quite calm. The appearance of Land to the West was again seen and most of the seamen by it Convincd that it realy was such; some however still held to their former opinion. Many Dolphins were about the ship and one shark was caught at Sunset. The Land appeard again in exactly the same place which at last convinc'd our most sturdy unbeleivers.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
9th.  We had light breezes, or calms, all day. Mr. Banks went out in the small boat, and shot between thirty and forty large boobies, which prey upon the flying-fish. In the evening we saw land to the N. W. of us, and supposed it to be about twenty leagues distant, which being very high, we thought, at first, it had been clouds. Latitude 9° 46’.

10th.  We had light breezes or calms all day, and were still at a great distance from land. We made an observation of the sun this day, and of the moon at night, to determine the longitude, and found ourselves in 233° 33’ west from London; and our latitude, by observation, was 10° 1’ south, by which we were certain that a current had driven us to the south, as we kept our course to the west. We saw several sharks, dolphins, and barracootas, about the ship, and caught a large shark.

8th September 1770

[In the Timor Sea]
Winds Easterly, with a high Sea from the same Quarter. Our Course and distance sail'd this 24 Hours is South 86 degrees 30 minutes West, 102 Miles; Latitude in 9 degrees 36 minutes South, Longitude 231 degrees 17 minutes West.

Joseph Banks Journal
Much less wind today; many Gannets and Bobies were seen. At Night 2 of the latter were taken.

7th September 1770

[In the Timor Sea]
[Remarks on Charts]
As I was not able to satisfy myself from any Chart what land it was we saw to Leeward of us, and fearing it might trend away more Southerly, and the weather being hazey so that we could not see far, we steer'd South-West, which Course by 4 o'Clock run us out of sight of the land; by this I was assured that no part of it lay to the Southward of 8 degrees 15 minutes South. We continued standing to the South-West all night under an Easey sail, having the advantage of a fresh gale at South-East by East and East-South-East, and clear moon light; we sounded every hour, but had no bottom with 100 and 120 fathoms of line. At daylight in the Morning we steer'd West-South-West, and afterwards West by South, which by Noon brought us into the Latitude of 9 degrees 30 minutes South, and Longitude 229 degrees 34 minutes West, and by our run from New Guinea ought to be in sight of Wessels Isle, which, according to the Chart is laid down about 20 or 25 Leagues from the coast of New Holland; but we saw nothing, by which I conclude that it is wrong laid down; and this is not to be wonder'd at when we consider that not only these Islands, but the lands which bound this Sea have been discover'd and explored by different people and at different times, and compiled and put together by others, perhaps some Ages after the first discoveries were made.

Navigation formerly wanted many of these helps towards keeping an Accurate Journal which the present Age is possessed of; it is not they that are wholy to blame for the faultiness of the Charts, but the Compilers and Publishers, who publish to the world the rude Sketches of the Navigator as Accurate surveys, without telling what authority they have for so doing; for were they to do this we should then be as good or better judge than they, and know where to depend upon the Charts, and where not. Neither can I clear Seamen of this fault; among the few I have known who are Capable of drawing a Chart or Sketch of a Sea Coast I have generally, nay, almost always, observed them run into this error. I have known them lay down the line of a Coast they have never seen, and put down Soundings where they never have sounded; and, after all, are so fond of their performances as to pass the whole off as Sterling under the Title of a Survey Plan, etc. These things must in time be attended with bad Consequences, and cannot fail of bringing the whole of their works in disrepute.* (* Cook had good reason for writing thus, and being himself scrupulously honest and careful, he felt this scamped work to be a disgrace to seamen.)  If he is so modest as to say, Such and such parts, or the whole of his plan is defective, the Publishers or Vendures will have it left out, because they say it hurts the sale of the work; so that between the one and the other we can hardly tell when we are possessed of a good Sea Chart until we ourselves have proved it.

Joseph Banks Journal
Trade as brisk and pleasant as ever. Infinite flying fish about the ship, some nectris's and Man of War Birds, many Gannets also seen; at Night 2 Bobies were caught.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
On the 7th, we had a fresh trade-wind from the east, with clear weather, latitude 9° 31’, and saw abundance of very small flying-fish, and some porpoises.

6th August 1770

[In the Timor Sea]
A Steady fresh gale and clear weather, with which we steerd WSW At 7 oClock in the evening, we took in the small Sails, Reef'd the Top sails and sounded having 50 fathom water. we still kept WSW all night going at the rate of 4 1/2 Miles an hour. In the Evening we caught 2 Boobies which settled upon the rigging and these were were the first of these Birds we have caught in this Manner the Voyage, Altho I have heard of them being caught this way in great numbers.

At day light in the Morning we made all the sail we could and at 10 o'Clock saw land extending from NNW to WBN distant 5 or 6 Leagues - At Noon it bore from North to west and about the same distance, our Latitude by observation was 8°.15' St Longde 227°-47' Wt This Land is of an even and moderate height and by our run from New Guinea ought to be a part of the Arow Isles, but it lays a Degree farther to the South than any of these Islands are laid down in the Charts. We sounded but had no ground with 50 fathoms of line — 

Joseph Banks Journal
Pleasant trade: our water deepned to 180 fathm. A tropick bird and 2 black and white Gannets seen about the ship. At Noon a large high Island was in sight, possibly Timor Land, tho if so the charts have laid it down much too far to the Southward. The supposition of its being so made us think of Timor, which had been visited by our countrey man Dampier; this thought made home recur to my mind stronger than it had done throughout the whole voyage: the distance I now conceivd to be nothing very great.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
On the 6th, in the forenoon, in latitude of 8° 15’, we saw an island to the N.W. of us, of considerable extent, being about six or seven leagues of flat level land; and, by the latitude we were in, we supposed it was Timor land, which is laid down in the maps more to the westward. We had a very fresh trade-wind from the S.E. and no soundings.

5th August 1770

[Off South-west Coast of New Guinea]
Wednesday, 5th. Winds at East by South and South-East by East, a fresh gale and Clear weather, with which were run 118 Miles upon a South 69 degrees 15 minutes West Course, which at Noon brought us into the Latitude of 7 degrees 25 minutes South, Longitude 225 degrees 41 minutes West; depth of Water 28 fathoms, having been in soundings the whole of this day's run, generally between 10 and 20 fathoms. At half an hour past one in the Morning we past by a small low Island, which bore from us at that time North-North-West, distant 3 or 4 Miles; depth of Water 14 fathoms, and at daylight we discover'd another low Island extending from North-North-West and North-North-East, distant 2 or 3 Leagues. I believe I should have landed upon this Island to have known its produce, as it did not appear to be very small, had not the wind blown too fresh for such an undertaking, and at the time we passed the Island we had only 10 fathoms Water, a rocky bottom; I was therefore afraid of running down to leeward for fear of meeting with Shoal Water and foul ground. These Islands have no place on the Charts, unless they are the Arrow Isles, which, if they are, they are laid down much too far from New Guinea. I found the South part of these to lay in the Latitude 7 degrees 6 minutes South, Longitude 225 degrees 0 minutes West.* (* These were probably Karang and Ennu Islands, two outliers of the Arru Islands.)

Joseph Banks Journal
During last night a low Island was seen and in the morn another, of a flat appearance but tolerably high. We supposd that these might be the Arow Isles as the latitude agreed very well, but if they were these Isles must be far nearer the Coast of New Guinea than any of our draughts place them. Many very large Blubbers (medusas) were seen, also Egg Birds, Bonitos and one Turtle. In the Eve we deepned our water to 50 fathm and saw then some small Mother Careys chickens (Proc. Fregata) about us which we always have lookd upon as a mark of being at a good distance from the Land. We saw also a man of war Bird, many Nectris's and Gannets; towards night a Booby (Pel ) settled on our rigging and was caught, the first we have met with in the voyage.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
On the 5th, in the morning, which was moon-light, about one o’clock, we passed two low islands, which, we supposed, are the southermost of the Arow Isles that are set down about this parallel. There is a fine fresh trade-wind, which generally blows easterly in the day time, but comes about at night more southerly, and blows much stronger. We kept a W. S. W. course, being in latitude 7° 24’ south, about twelve degrees from the island of Timor. Since the 3d instant we have had from twelve to twenty fathoms water till this day, and then our soundings were much deeper.

4th August 1770

[Off South-west Coast of New Guinea]
Stood to the Westward all this day, having at first a moderate breeze Southerly, which afterwards freshned and Veered to South-East and East-South-East. We keept on sounding all the time, having from 14 to 30 fathoms not regular, but sometimes more and sometimes less. At noon we were in 14 fathoms; by observation in the Latitude of 6 degrees 44 minutes South, Longitude 223 degrees 51 minutes West. Course and distance sail'd since Yesteday Noon South 76 minutes West, 120 Miles.

Joseph Banks Journal
Brisk trade and fine weather. The alterd Countenances of our common people were still more perceivable than they were yesterday. Two thirds allowance had I beleive made the cheif difference with them, for our provisions were now so much wasted by keeping that that allowance was little more than was necessary to keep life and soul together.

3rd September 1770

[Off Cape Walsche, New Guinea]
Steer'd North by East, with a fresh breeze at East by North until 7 in the Evening, when the wind came to South-East by South, with which we keept standing to the Eastward close upon a wind all Night, having from 17 to 10 fathoms pretty even Soundings. At daylight we saw the land extending from North by East to South-East, distant about 4 Leagues. We still keept standing in for it, having the advantage of a fresh gale at East-South-East and East by South, until near 9, when, being about 3 or 4 Miles off, and in 3 fathoms, we brought too and I went ashore in the pinnace, accompanied by Mr. Banks and Dr. Solander, having a mind to land once in this Country before we quit it Altogether, which I now am determin'd to do without delay; for I found that it is only spending time to little purpose, and carrying us far out of our way, staying upon this Coast, which is so shallow that we can hardly keep within sight of land.

Joseph Banks Journal
After having saild all night along shore with a brisk breeze we found ourselves in the morn not far from it: It appeard as it had done whenever we had seen it before, uncommonly flat and low, not having so much as a slope in any part, the whole one grove of trees very thick and pleasant to all appearance. This was the sixth day we had now coasted along still upon the same bank of mud, which by its shoalness prevented our approaches near enough to make going ashore convenient. This delay and the loss of so many days fair wind when we well knew the SE Monsoon was nearly at an end was irksome to us all: it was therefore resolvd to run the ship in as near the shore as possible and then send off the pinnace, which might go ashore while the ship ply'd off and on and learn whether the produce of the countrey or the usage she might meet with from the inhabitants would be such as might induce us to search farther. We accordingly stood right in shore and at ½ past 8 had less than 3 fathm water 5 or 6 miles from the shore.

The Captn Dr Solander and myself with the Boats crew and my servants, consisting in all of 12 men well armd, went in her and rowd directly towards the shore but could not get nearer than about 200 yards on account of the shallowness of the water; we quickly however got out of the boat and waded ashore leaving two in her to take care of her. We had no sooner landed than we saw the prints of naked feet upon the mud below High watermark, which convincd us that the Indians were not far off tho we had seen yet no signs of any. The nature of the countrey made it necessary for us to be very much upon our guard: the close thick wood came down to within less than 100 yards of the water, and therefore so near might the Indians come without our seeing them, and should they by numbers overpower us a retreat to the boat was impossible as she was so far from the shore. We proceeded therefore with much caution, looking carefully about us, myself and the Dr looking for plants at the edge of the wood and the rest walking along the Beach. In about 200 yards from our landing we came to a grove of Cocoa nut trees of a very small growth but well hung with fruit standing upon the banks of a small brook of brackish water.

Near them was a small shed hardly half coverd with cocoa nut leaves, in and about which were infinite Cocoa nut shells, some quite fresh. We stayd under these trees some time admiring and wishing for the fruit, but as none of us could climb it was impossible to get even one so we even left them and proceeded in search of any thing else which might occur. We soon found Plantains and a single Bread fruit tree but neither of these had any fruit on them, so we proceeded and had got about a quarter of a mile from the boat when on a sudden 3 Indians rushd out of the woods with a hideous shout, about 100 yards beyond us and running towards us. The formost threw something out of his hand which flew on one side of him and burnd exactly like gunpowder, the other two immediately threw two darts at us on which we fird. The most of our guns were loaded with small shot which at the distance they were from us I suppose they hardly felt, for they movd not at all but immediately threw a third dart on which we loaded and fird again. Our Balls I suppose this time fell near them but none of them were materialy hurt as they ran away with great alacrity.

From this specimen of the people we immediately concluded that nothing was to be got here but by force, which would of course be attended with destruction of many of these poor people, whose territories we had certainly no right to invade either as discoverers or people in real want of provisions; we therefore resolvd to go into our boat and leave intirely this coast to some aftercomer who might have either more time or better opportunities to gain the freindship of its inhabitants. Before we had got abreast of her however we saw the two people in her make signals to us that more Indians were coming along shore, and before we had got into the water we saw them come round a point about 500 yards from us. They had met probably the three who first attackd us for on seeing us they halted and seemd to wait till the main body should come up, nor did they come nearer us all the while we waded to her; they continued however with their fire to defy us and shouted very loud. 

When we were embarked and afloat we rowd towards them and fird some musquets over their heads into the trees, on which they walkd gradualy off continuing to throw abundance of their fires (whatever they migh[t] be designed for). We guessd their numbers to be about 100. After we had lookd at them and their behaviour as long as we chose we returnd to the ship, where our freinds had sufferd much anziety for our sakes imagining that the fires thrown by the Indians were real musquets, so much did they resemble the fire and smoak made by the firing of one.

The place where we landed we judgd to be near Cabo de la Colta de Santa Bonaventura, as it is calld in the French charts, about 9 or 10 lgs to the Southward of Keer Weer. We were not ashore upon the whole more than two hours so can not be expected to have made many observations. The Soil had all the appearance of the highest fertil[it]y but was coverd with a prodigious quantity of trees which seemd to thrive luxuriantly. Notwithstanding this the cocoa nut trees bore very small Fruit and the Plantains did not seem very thriving; the only breadfruit tree that we saw however was very large and healthy. There was very little variety of plants: we saw only 23 species every one of which was known to us, except perhaps the 1st and 2nd may prove upon comparison to be different from any of the many Species of Cyperus we have still undetermind from New Holland. Had we had axes to cut down the trees or could we have venturd into the woods we should doubtless have found more, but we had only an opportunity of examining the beach and edge of the wood. I am of opinion however that the countrey does not abound in variety of species, as I have been in no one before where I could not on a good soil have gatherd more by far with the same time and opportunity. 

The people as well as we could judge were nearly of the same colour as the New Hollanders, some thought rather lighter, they were certainly stark naked. Their arms that they made use of against us were very light ill made darts of Bamboo cane pinted with hard wood in which were many barbs; they may be shot them with bows but I am of opinion that they threw them with a stick something in the manner of the New Hollanders; they came beyond us about 60 yards, but not in a point blanc direction. Besides these many among them, may be a fifth part of the whole, had in their hands a short peice of stick may be hollow cane, which they swung sideways from them and immediately fire flew from it perfectly resembling the flash and smoak of a musquet and of no longer duration; for what purpose this was done is far above my guessing. They had with them several dogs who ran after them in the same manner as ours do in Europe.

The house or shed that we saw was very mean and poor. It consisted of 4 stakes drove into the ground, 2 being longer than the other two: over these were layd cocoa nut leaves loose and not half enough to cover it. By the cutting of these stakes as well as of the arrows or darts which they threw at us we concluded that they had no Iron among them. As soon as ever the boat was hoisted in we made sail and steerd away from this land to the No small satisfaction of I beleive thre[e] fourths of our company the sick became well and the melancholy lookd gay. The greatest part of them were now pretty far gone with the longing for home which the Physicians have gone so far as to esteem a disease under the name of Nostalgia; indeed I can find hardly any body in the ship clear of its effects but the Captn Dr Solander and myself, indeed we three have pretty constant employment for our minds which I beleive to be the best if not the only remedy for it.

Sydney Parkinson Journal 
After beating about for three days in quest of land, being prevented getting in with it by the wind setting east, on the 3d, in the morning, we made the coast again, and approached to within three or four leagues of the shore: A party of our people went, in the pinnace, to examine the country while we stood off and on. They soon returned with an account that a great number of the natives threatened them on the beach, who had pieces of bamboo, or canes, in their hands, out of which they puffed some smoke, and then threw some darts at them about a fathom long, made of reeds, and pointed of Etoa wood, which were barbed, but very blunt. Our people fired upon them, but they did not appear to be intimidated; our men, therefore, thought proper to embark.

They observed that these people were not negroes, as has been reported, but are much like the natives of New Holland, having shock hair, and being entirely naked. They also saw a plenty of cocoa-nuts growing on the trees, as well as lying in heaps on the ground; and plantains, bread-fruit, and Peea. The country appeared very fertile, having a great number of different sorts of trees, which formed very thick woods. The soil is very rich, and produces much larger plants than grow on the islands. Latitude 6° 15’.

2nd September 1770

[Off Cape Walsche, New Guinea]
In the P.M. had Calm until 2, when a light breeze sprung up at North by East, and we stood in for the Land East by North until 5, at which time we got the wind from the South-West, a light breeze, with which we steer'd North-East, edging in for the land, having it in sight from the Deck, and which I judged to be about 3 or 4 Leagues off, being very low land. Found the Variation to be 2 degrees 34 minutes East, and a little before 8 o'Clock, having but little wind, we Anchor'd in 7 fathoms, soft Muddy bottom. In the Afternoon and evening we saw several Sea Snakes, some of which the people in the Boat alongside took up by hand. At daylight in the Morning we got under sail, and stood away to the North-North-East, having a fresh gale at East, which by noon brought us into the Latitude of 7 degrees 14 minutes South, Longitude 222 degrees 30 minutes West; Depth of Water 13 fathoms. Course and distance sail'd since Yesterday Noon is North 24 degrees East, 27 Miles, having at this time no land in sight, for the Land, according to the Charts, trends more Easterly than the Wind would permit us to sail.

Joseph Banks Journal
Fresh breeze again at E. In the morn the sweet smell of yesterday was observd tho in a much smaller degree. In the even it was almost calm and again intensely hot.

1st September 1770

[Off Cape Walsche, New Guinea]
In the P.M. and most part of the night had a fresh breeze from the South-East with which we keept standing in for the land North-East and East-North-East, close upon a wind, until half past 6, when we Anchor'd in 4 1/2 fathoms, soft muddy bottom, as we have every were found upon the Coast. About an hour before we Anchor'd we saw the land from the Mast head extending from the East by North to South-South-East, all very low; at the time we Anchor'd we found a small drean* (* Drain.) of a Tide setting away to the North-West, which continued until 2 in the morning, when the Water had fell 9 feet or better. This Tide of Ebb was then succeeded by the Flood, which came from the South-West; yet we did not find the Water to rise much upon a perpendicular, or else the greatest fall of the Tide had not been well attended to in the night, for at 6, when we got under sail, we had no more than 3 fathoms under the ship, and yet we could not see the land from the Deck. After getting under sail we stood to the Northward with a light breeze at East, and deepned our Water by noon to 10 fathoms, having the Land just in sight from the Mast head to the South-East. At this time we were in the Latitude of 7 degrees 39 minutes South, Longitude 222 degrees 42 minutes West; Port St. Augustine bore South 10 degrees West, distant 15 Leagues.

Joseph Banks Journal
Distant as the land was a very Fragrant smell came of from it realy in the morn with the little breeze which blew right off shore, it resembled much the smell of gum Benjamin; as the sun gatherd power it dyed away and was no longer smelt. All the latter part of the day we had calms or light winds all round the compass, the weather at the same time being most intolerably hot.