28th January 1769

Off Cape Horn
Saturday, 28th. Fresh Gales the most part of this day; first and Middle parts cloudy; latter, clear with a Sharp cold air. At 2 p.m. saw the land, bearing North, distant about 8 Leagues; it made in 2 Hummocks, and appeared to be an Island, which I take to be the Isle of Diego Ramirez.  It lays in the Latitude of 56 degrees 38 minutes South and Longitude 68 degrees 47 minutes West from Greenwich. Found the Variation this Evening to be 22 degrees East. A.M. had 3 sets of Observations of the sun and moon, which gave the Longitude 69 degrees 7 minutes 15 seconds West. The Longitude of the Ship at Noon by the Observation is 69 degrees 24 minutes, from which take 1 degree 48 minutes, the longitude made from Cape Horn, the remainder is 67 degrees 36 minutes, the Longitude of the Cape, which is 52 minutes less than the result of Yesterday's Observations.  This difference may arise partly from the Observations and partly from the Ship's runs; the mean of the 2 gives 68 degrees 2 minutes and 68 degrees 24 minutes, the Longitude of the Cape from the Observations taken at Strait Maire 136 degrees 26 minutes/2 = 68 degrees 13 minutes West from Greenwich. The Longitude of Cape Horn being deduced from no less than 24 Observations taken at no very great distance from the Cape, and on both sides of it, and when the Sun was both to the East and West of the Moon; for in this case the Errors arising from the Observations are most likely to Correct one another. Wind, North and West by North to North-West by West; course, South 39 degrees West; distance, 80 miles; latitude 58 degrees 4 minutes South, longitude 70 degrees 1 minute West. 

Joseph Banks Journal
Pleasant breezes but a heavy swell from NNW continued and made it likely that we were past the Cape, tho we had made but little westing.

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