7th February 1770

[In Cook's Strait, New Zealand]
In the P.M. had a light breeze at North by West, with which we got out of the Sound and stood over to the Eastward, in order to get the Strait well open before the tide of Ebb Made. At 7 the 2 Small Islands which lies off Cape Koamaroo, or the South-East head of Queen Charlotte's Sound, bore East, distant 4 miles. At this time we had it nearly Calm, and the tide of Ebb making out, we were Carried by the Rapidity of the Stream in a very short time close upon one of the Islands,* (* The Brothers. There is now a lighthouse on this island.) where we narrowly escaped being dashed against the Rocks by bringing the Ship to an Anchor in 75 fathoms Water, with 150 fathoms of Cable out. Even this would not have saved us had not the Tide, which first set South by East, by meeting with the Island changed its direction to South-East, and carried us past the first point. When the Ship was brought up she was about 2 Cables' Lengths of the Rocks and in the Strength of the Stream, which set South-East at least 4 or 5 Knotts or miles per Hour. A little before 12 o'Clock the Tide abated, and we began to heave; by 3 the Anchor was at the bows, and having a light breeze at North-West, we made sail over for the Eastern Shore; but having the tide against us we made but little way. The wind afterwards freshned, and Came to North and North-East, with which and the tide of Ebb we were in a short time hurried thro' the narrowest part of the Strait, and then stood away for the Southermost land we had in sight, which bore from us South by West. Over this land appeared a Prodigious high Mountain,* (* The Kairoura Range, the summit of which is 9500 feet high.) the Summit of which was covered with snow. The narrowest part of the Strait we have passed lies between Cape Koamaroo on Tovy-poinammu and Cape Teerawhitte on Aeheino-mouwe; the distance from the one to the other I judged to be between 4 and 5 Leagues. And notwithstanding the strength of the Tides, now that is known, there is no great danger in passing it; in the doing of which I am of opinion that the North-East Shore is the safest to keep upon, for upon that side there appeared no danger, whereas on the other shore there are not only the Islands and Rocks lying off Cape Koamaroo, for I discover'd from the hill from which I had the Second View of the Strait, a Reef of Rocks stretching from these Islands 6 or 7 Miles to the Southward, and lay about 2 or 3 Miles off from the Shore. I shall not pretend here to assign limits to the length of this Strait; a view of the Chart will best illustrate that. About North 9 Leagues from Cape Teerawhitte, under the same shore, is a high remarkable Island, that may be distinctly seen from Queen Charlotte Sound, from which it lies North-East by East 1/4 East, distant 6 or 7 Leagues. I have called it Entry Isle, and was taken Notice of when we first past it on Sunday 14th of last Month. On the East side of Cape Teerawhitte the Land Trends away South-East by East about 8 Leagues, where it ends in a point, and is the Southermost land on Aeheinomouwe, which I have named Cape Pallisser in Honour of my worthy friend Capt. Pallisser.* (* Captain Palliser, afterwards Sir Hugh, was Captain of the Eagle, Cook's first ship in the Royal Navy. He discovered Cook's talents, and was his warm friend throughout his life. Between Cape Teerawhitte and Cape Palliser is the entrance to Port Nicholson, wherein is situated Wellington, the capital of New Zealand. This entrance is, however, narrow, and Cook was never near enough to the land to discover it.) Latitude 41 degrees 34 minutes, Longitude 183 degrees 58 minutes, it bore from us this day at Noon South 79 degrees East, distant 12 or 13 Leagues, being then in the Latitude of 41 degrees 27 minutes South; at the same time Cape Koamaroo bore North 1/2 East, distant 7 or 8 Leagues. The Southermost point of land in sight bore South 16 degrees West, and the snowy Mountain South-West being about 3 Leagues from the shore and abreast of a Deep Bay or inlet called Cloudy bay, in the bottom of which appear'd low land cover'd with tall Trees.

Joseph Banks Journal
Sensible again of the Violence of the tides here which past us in great ripples, even in the middle of the streights, tho they were judgd to be 5 leagues over in the narrowest part. A large hill was seen with much snow upon it on the SW side: at noon we were almost abreast of it and clear of the streights, it provd to be so far inland that we could hardly trace its outline so probably it is very high indeed. The land between us and it was flat for a large extent but seemd barren and swampy Land, after this barren and sandy and rounded away fast to the Southward; a small smoak upon it in the Even was the only sign of inhabitants that we saw.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
We weighed anchor, and proceeded along the straits with the tide and a fine breeze, which set us through with great rapidity. At the entrance into the straits, from the north, there is a small island on the north side, near a point of land on the main; this island we called Entry Island. The land on the south side is very high, and but thinly clothed, though we saw here and there a fine level. At one part, in particular, the land was very low, and seemed to form an entrance. We saw a very long row of high trees, like those at Hawke's bay, and at Ooahaowragee, or the river Thames; and it is probably the mouth of some river. We called this bay Cloudy Bay; opposite to which, on the other side of the straits, is a cape or point of land which the natives of Cannibal Bay call Teerawitte. Here is also a great number of hills, and one much higher than the rest, having its summit covered with snow, which we saw at a great distance. The north coast tended away eastward; and the south to the S. S. W. which we followed till the night closed in upon us; then the wind chopped about; and, being willing to satisfy ourselves whether the north part of this land was an island, we resolved to sail as far north as Cape Turnagain, These straits, which we named Cook's Straits, are about thirteen miles long, and fourteen broad. The two eastermoit points of which we called Cape Campbell and Cape Palliser. The flood tide comes strong in from the southward, and, on the days of new and full moon, it is high water about eleven o'clock.

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