1st October 1770
First and latter parts fresh breezes at South-East and fair weather; the Middle squally with Lightning and rain. At 7 p.m., being then in the Latitude of Java head, and not seeing any land, assured us that we had got too far to the Westward; upon which we hauld up East-North-East, having before Steerd North by East. At 12 o'Clock saw the Land bearing East, Tack'd, and stood to the South-West until 4, then stood again to the Eastward, having very unsettled squally weather which split the Main Topsail very much, and obliged us to bend the other; many of our Sails are now so bad that they will hardly stand the least puff of Wind. At 6 o'Clock Java head, on the West end of Java, bore South-East by East, distant 5 Leagues; soon after this saw Princes Island, bearing East 1/2 South. At 10 o'Clock saw the Island of Cracatoa* (* The great eruption, and consequent destruction of the larger part of this island in 1883, will be remembered. It lies in the centre of Sunda Strait.) bearing North-East, distant 7 Leagues; Princes Island extending from South 53 degrees East to South by West, distant 3 Leagues. Course and distance saild since Yesterday at Noon is North 24 degrees 30 minutes East, 70 Miles. Latitude in per Observation, 6 degrees 29 minutes South, Longitude 251 degrees 54 minutes; but either our Longitude must be erroneous or the Straits of Sunda must be faltily laid down in all Books and Charts; but this no doubt we shall have an opportunity to settle.* (* Cook's longitude was in error nearly three degrees. No lunars had been taken since they left Savu, and there is a current running westward. It is a good example of the error of dead reckoning, even with the most careful of navigators.)
Joseph Banks Journal
Thunder and lightning with heavy rain all night; about 12 Land was seen by the flashes which in Morn provd to be Java Head and Princes Island. At noon we had a good Observation and found that Princes Island was laid down in La Neptune Oriental 7 or 8 miles too far to the Northward and in the English East India Pilot or Quarter Waggoner 21 or 22; which extrordinary difference in the latter seems owing to some mistake in his particular Draught of the Streights, all parts of which are laid down 14" at least different from the rest of his draughts as well as his own sailing directions. The breeze was fresh and tolerably favourable so that at night we had Passd Crocata and stood on by very clear Moonlight, tho the clouds about the Horizon threatned and it lightned a good deal.
Sydney Parkinson Journal
In the morning, discovered Java and Prince’s Islands. We directed our course through the Straits of Sundy; and, in the afternoon, passed a small island, upon which we saw a very high hill, of a conical figure, and several small ones. This is called the Isle of Crocata: We saw also Pepper-Point. In the night, the weather was squally, and we had rain, with thunder and lightening. By our reckoning we found that Java Head is about 14° 22’ to the west of Timor. We had a brisk trade-wind from the S. E. and very near over-shot the Straits; but not finding land, we hauled to the eastward, and luckily got into the Straits to the leeward of Prince’s Island. Our latitude, at noon, was 6° 9’.
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