9th March 1770

[Off South Cape of New Zealand]
P.M. Winds at North, a Gentle breeze and Clear weather. Stood to the Westward until sunset, at which time the Extreams of the land bore from North by East to West, distant about 7 or 8 Leagues; Depth of Water 55 fathoms; Variation by the Amplitude 16 degrees 29 minutes East. The wind now veer'd to the Westward, and as the weather was fine and Moonlight we kept standing close upon a Wind to the South-West all night. At 4 a.m. Sounded, and had 60 fathoms; at daylight we discover'd under our lee bow Ledges of Rocks, on which the Sea broke very high, extending from South by West to West by South, and not above 3/4 of a Mile from us; yet upon sounding we had 45 fathoms, a Rocky bottom. The wind being at North-West we could not weather the Ledge, and as I did not care to run to leeward, we tackt and made a Trip to the Eastward; but the wind soon after coming to the North enabled us to go clear of all. Our soundings in passing within the Ledge was from 35 to 47 fathoms, a rocky bottom. This Ledge lies South-East, 6 Leagues from the Southermost part of the Land, and South-East by South from some remarkable hills which stand near the Shore. These rocks are not the only dangers that lay here, for about 3 Leagues to the Northward of them is another Ledge of Rocks, laying full 3 Leagues from the land, whereon the Sea broke very high. As we passed these rocks in the night at no great distance, and discover'd the others close under our Lee at daylight, it is apparent that we had a very fortunate Escape. I have named them the Traps, because they lay as such to catch unweary Strangers.* (* The dangerous Traps lie south and east of the South Island of New Zealand. The Endeavour had now at last got to the southward of the land. There is a small but high rock farther south, the Snares, that Cook did not sight this voyage.) At Noon our Latitude per observation was 47 degrees 26 minutes South; Longitude made from Cape Saunders 3 degrees 4 minutes West, the land in sight--which has very much the appearance of an Island* (* South or Stewart Island.)--extending North-East by North to North-West by West, distant from the Shore about 4 or 5 Leagues; the Eastermost ledge of rocks bore South-South-East, distant 1 1/2 Leagues; and Northermost North-East 1/2 East, 3 Leagues. This land is of a moderate height, and has a very barren Aspect; not a Tree to be seen upon it, only a few Small Shrubs. There were several white patches, on which the sun's rays reflected very strongly, which I take to be a kind of Marble such as we have seen in many places of this Country, particularly to the Northward.

Joseph Banks Journal
At the first dawn of day a ledge of rocks were discoverd right to leward and very near us, so we had much reason to be thankfull that the wind in the night had been very gentle otherwise we must in all human probability have ran right among them, at least we could have had no chance of escaping them but by hearing them as there was no moon. The land appeard barren and seemd to end in a point to which the hills gradualy declind--much to the regret of us Continent mongers who could not help thinking this, a great swell from SW and the broken ground without it a pretty sure mark of some remarkable Cape being here. By noon we were pretty near the land which was uncommonly barren; the few flat places we saw seemingly produc'd little or nothing and the rest was all bare rocks, which were amazingly full of Large Veins and patches of some mineral that shone as if it had been polishd or rather lookd as if they were realy pavd with glass; what it was I could not at all guess but it certainly was some mineral and seemd to argue by its immense abundance a countrey abounding in minerals, where if one may judge from the corresponding latitudes of South America in all human probability something very valuable might be found.

Sydney Parkinson Journal
We had light breezes and calms till the ninth; and, at the dawn of that day, we narrowly escaped running the ship upon a ledge, or parcel of craggy rocks; some of which were but just seen above water. They were luckily discovered by the midshipman's going to the mast head. The breeze being moderate, we put the helm a-lee, and were delivered from this imminent danger by the good providence of God. The land, which we then saw at a considerable distance, seemed to be an island, having a great opening between it and the land which we had passed before; but, the captain designing to go round, we steered for the south point, hoping it was the last. This large opening we named South-East Bay; on the N. W. side of which there is a small long island, that we ca11ed Bench Island. We stood out to sea, but, meeting with contrary winds, we beat to windward for a considerable time: at length, the wind coming fair; we steered westerly, and, unexpectedly, found ourselves between two large shoals, which had some rocks upon them; but we fortunately escaped them. We called these shoals The Traps. Toward night, we got so far round as to make the point bear N. N. E. and then we saw some kind of stuff upon it that glittered very much, but could not discover what it was composed of. This day the weather was more moderate than it had been for many days; and being one of the inferior officers birth day, it was celebrated by a peculiar kind of festival; a dog was killed that had been bred on board; the hind quarters were roasted; and a pye was made of the fore quarters, into the crust of which they put the fat; and of the viscera they made a haggis.

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