19th August 2013

[Amongst Shoals off Cape Grenville]
Gentle breezes at South-East by East and Clear wether. At 2 P.M., as we were steering North-West by North, saw a large shoal right ahead, extending 3 or 4 points on each bow, upon which we hauld up North-North-East and North-East by North, in order to get round to North Point of it, which we reached by 4 o'clock, and then Edged away to the westward, and run between the North end of this Shoal and another, which lays 2 miles to the Northward of it, having a Boat all the time ahead sounding. Our depth of Water was very irregular, from 22 to 8 fathoms. At 1/2 past 6 we Anchor'd in 13 fathoms; the Northermost of the Small Islands mentioned at Noon bore West 1/2 South, distant 3 Miles. These Islands, which are known in the Chart by the name of Forbes's Isles,* (* Admiral John Forbes was a Commissioner of Longitude in 1768, and had been a Lord of the Admiralty from 1756 to 1763.) lay about 5 Leagues from the Main, which here forms a moderate high point, which we called Bolt head, from which the Land trends more westerly, and is all low, sandy Land, but to the Southward it is high and hilly, even near the Sea. At 6 A.M. we got under sail, and directed our Course for an Island which lay but a little way from the Main, and bore from us at this time North 40 degrees West, distant 5 Leagues; but we were soon interrupted in our Course by meeting with Shoals, but by the help of 2 Boats ahead and a good lookout at the Mast head we got at last into a fair Channel, which lead us down to the Island, having a very large Shoal on our Starboard side and several smaller ones betwixt us and the Main land. In this Channel we had from 20 to 30 fathoms. Between 11 and 12 o'Clock we hauld round the North-East side of the Island, leaving it between us and the Main from which it is distant 7 or 8 Miles. This Island is about a League in Circuit and of a moderate height, and is inhabited; to the North-West of it are several small, low Islands and Keys, which lay not far from the Main, and to the Northward and Eastward lay several other Islands and Shoals, so that we were now incompassed on every side by one or the other, but so much does a great danger Swallow up lesser ones, that these once so much dreaded spots were now looked at with less concern. The Boats being out of their Stations, we brought too to wait for them.

At Noon our Latitude by observation was 12 degrees 0 minutes South, Longitude in 217 degrees 25 minutes West; depth of Water 14 fathoms; Course and distance sail'd, reduced to a strait line, since yesterday Noon is North 29 degrees West, 32 Miles. The Main land within the above Islands forms a point, which I call Cape Grenville* (* George Grenville was First Lord of the Admiralty for a few months in 1763, and afterwards Prime Minister for two years.) (Latitude 11 degrees 58 minutes, Longitude 217 degrees 38 minutes); between this Cape and the Bolt head is a Bay, which I Named Temple Bay.* (* Richard Earl Temple, brother of George Grenville, was First Lord of the Admiralty in 1756.) East 1/2 North, 9 Leagues from Cape Grenville, lay some tolerable high Islands, which I called Sir Charles Hardy's Isles;* (* Admiral Sir C. Hardy was second in command in Hawke's great action in Quiberon Bay, 1759.) those which lay off the Cape I named Cockburn Isles.* (* Admiral George Cockburn was a Commissioner of Longitude and Comptroller of the Navy when Cook left England. Off Cape Grenville the Endeavour again got into what is now the recognised channel along the land inside the reefs.)

Joseph Banks Journal
Weighd anchor and steerd as yesterday with a fresh trade wind. All morn were much entangled with Shoals, but so much do great dangers swallow up lesser ones that these once so much dreaded shoals were now look[ed] at with much less concern than formerly. At noon we passd along a large shoal on which the boats which were ahead saw many turtle but it blew too fresh to catch them. We were now tolerably near the main, which appeard low and barren and often interspersd with large patches of the very white sand spoke of before. On a small Island which we passd very near to were 5 natives, 2 of whoom carried their Lances in their hands; they came down upon a point and lookd at the ship for a little while and then retird.

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